In the final chapter[ 1 ] of the apostle's first letter, Peter appeals to elders of the church that they shepherd the church willingly. He encourages younger members to humbly submit to the elders and for all to cast their cares upon the Lord. He warns about the lurking devil who must be resisted. He calls upon the Heavenly Father to strengthen his readers and he gives God the glory. He acknowledges that the letter is "by Silvanus"; sends a greeting from "she who is in Babylon" and another from Mark. Each Christian is encouraged to greet the others (see chart 1 PETER 5 OUTLINE).
1 PETER 5 OUTLINE
- Elders to willingly shepherd (1Pe 5:1-4).
- Younger members submit to elders, all cast cares upon the Lord (1Pe 5:5-7).
- Devil lurks and must be resisted (1Pe 5:8, 9).
- May God strengthen; glory given to God (1Pe 5:10, 11).
- Silvanus acknowledged; greeting from "she who is in Babylon" and Mark; all to greet each other (1Pe 5:12, 13).
ELDERS TO SHEPHERD THE FLOCK
5:1-4 The elders who are among you I exhort, I who am a fellow elder and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that will be revealed: 2 Shepherd the flock of God which is among you, serving as overseers, not by compulsion but willingly, not for dishonest gain but eagerly; 3 nor as being lords over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock; 4 and when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that does not fade away.
The elders [now, so, the elders].[ 2 ] Although the NKJV ignores the Greek OUN therefore we may be sure that Peter is about to write something that relates to what he said in chapter 4. In light of his straightforward discussion about suffering in the previous chapter, Peter appeals to elders.
Elders are teachers. They set an example for the members. They guard and guide the flock. Other terms describing them are presbyters, bishops, overseers, superintendents, pastors and shepherds (see notes on Ac 11:30; 14:23; 15:4, 6, 22; 20:17, 28-31; 1Ti 3:2-7; 5:17; Tit 1:5-11; Jas 5:14). The course taken by them determines to a large degree how members react to temptations, suffering and work (see note below on Of the sufferings of Christ).
Who are among you [among you, which are among you].[ 3 ] Elders are not aloof from other Christians. They are not detached, unapproachable or separated from the members. They are "among" the membership of the local congregation. Someone has said that shepherds "smell like sheep." This metaphor suggests that elders need to visit, talk with, listen to, pray for and teach the members. Just to sit back and see that this is done is not sufficient.
The converse is also true. The members are also among the elders (see verse 2). That is, they are to follow them, regularly give honor to them and come to them for counsel.
I exhort [I admonish].[ 4 ]
I who am a fellow elder [as, who am their fellow-elder, am also an elder].[ 5 ] Peter was an elder of the church of Christ. He was married and had believing children (implied by Mt 8:14; 1Co 9:5; 1Ti 3:2, 4; Tit 1:6). He was certainly apt to teach. In the beginning of the letter, he called himself "an apostle of Jesus Christ." In the second letter, he describes himself as "a bond-servant and apostle of Jesus Christ." Here, he is a fellow-elder and a witness. Nowhere does he (or any other inspired writer) state or imply that he was Pope.
WHO WAS PETER?
- An apostle of Jesus Christ (1Pe 1:1).
- A fellow-elder.
- A witness of the sufferings of Christ.
- A partaker of the glory that is to be revealed.
- A bond-servant and apostle of Jesus Christ (2Pe 1:1).
VARIOUS MEANINGS OF "WITNESS"
- A spectator or eye-witness (Ac 6:13; 10:39).
- One who testifies to what he has seen (Ac 1:8; 5:32).
- In the forensic sense, a witness in court (Mt 26:65; Mk 14:63).
- One who vindicates his testimony by suffering: a martyr (Ac 22:20; Heb 12:1; Re 2:13; 17:6).
(Adapted from Vincent 1.665)
And a witness [and witness].[ 6 ] Peter was present and observed Christ on many occasions including His trial (see Lu 24:46-48; compare Mt 26:58; Lu 22:61; Ac 1:21, 22).
Of the sufferings of Christ [of the sufferings of the Christ].[ 7 ] Except for this one statement that Peter was a witness of the sufferings of Christ, I have been unable to determine that he actually stood by watching as Christ was crucified. We know he witnessed a part of His trial while he warmed himself by the courtyard fire and denied Him. Solely in my imagination, I see him as he looked upon the Savior being scourged and then carrying the cross. I see him weeping as he found a place to stand among the crowd to viewed the Savior suffering on Calvary (see chart BENEFITS OF CHRIST'S SUFFERINGS).
BENEFITS OF CHRIST'S DEATH
- Sprinkled of His blood (1Pe 1:2).
- Redeemed with His precious blood (1Pe 1:18, 19).
- Bore our sins in His body on the tree (1Pe 2:24).
- Suffered for sins once (1Pe 3:18).
- Suffered in the flesh (1Pe 4:1).
And also a partaker [and, as well as, who am also, who also am, partaker].[ 8 ] While still in his earthly sojourn, Peter thought of heaven where he would soon be sharing the glory of Christ. His trust in the Lord's promises was so strong that he entertained no doubt whatsoever of his future glory.
Of the glory [in the glory].[ 9 ] Peter began the topic of "glory" by writing of "the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow" (1Pe 1:11). He said that God "raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory" (1Pe 1:21; compare Lu 24:46; Joh 17:5). He encouraged those sharing His sufferings to "keep on rejoicing, so that also at the revelation of His glory, [they] may rejoice with exultation" (1Pe 4:13).
That will be revealed [that is to be, that shall be, about to be, revealed].[ 10 ] There is a sense that Christians share the Savior's glory while still on earth. Peter said he was a partaker of "the glory." Now, he says it "will be revealed" (compare 1Pe 1:5, 7, 11; 4:13). Like Paul, he lived "in hope of eternal life" (Tit 1:2; 3:7). His hope of heaven was so certain he expressed it as a reality.
[5:2] Shepherd [tend, feed].[ 11 ] "Shepherd is a verb that expresses the work of a shepherd or pastor (see Eph 4:11). That work is to guide, guard, protect, tend and feed the flock (see chart OVERSIGHT OF ELDERS).
SHEPHERDING GOD'S FLOCK
- BOSKE feed my lambs (Joh 21:15).
- POIMAINE tend my sheep (Joh 21:16).
- BOSKE feed my sheep (Joh 21:17).
- Overseers to POIMAINEIN shepherd the church of God (Ac 20:28).
- POIMANATE shepherd the flock of God (1Pe 5:2).
The flock of God.[ 12 ] "The flock" is the church. Notice that it is not the flock of the elders, but is "of God." The church belongs to God, not the pastors. Peter refers to his readers as sheep (1Pe 2:25). Christ is the Chief Shepherd (verse 4). Under Him, elders are shepherds of a local flock. An elder is "God's steward"[ 13 ] As such, he, along with other elders, is in charge of a local flock that belongs to God. Paul implied that elders as well as preachers be paid if they labor in the word. When he asked a question about drinking milk, he implied as much: "Who POIMAINEI tends a flock and does not drink the milk of the flock?" (1Co 9:7).
Which is among you [among you, that is your charge].[ 14 ] It is not the duty of a set of elders to guard and guide the whole country or the entire brotherhood. They are not obligated to care for those not members of God's flock.[ 15 ] Their responsibility is limited to a local congregation. They are to shepherd the flock of God "which is among" them. Their particular charge is the people where they worship and over which they were appointed.
Serving as overseers [taking, exercising, the oversight, the oversight thereof, overseeing it].[ 16 ] Although the verb "serving as overseers" is omitted from some Greek texts, it points out the work suggested by the noun EPISKOPOUS bishop or overseer (see Ac 20:28; Php 1:1; 1Ti 3:1, 2; Tit 1:7; charts SHEPHERDING GOD'S FLOCK; OVERSIGHT OF ELDERS).
OVERSIGHT OF ELDERS
- The Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God (Ac 20:28).
- Labor among you, and are over you in the Lord and admonish you (1Th 5:12).
- Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and doctrine (1Ti 5:17).
- Shepherd the flock of God which is among you, serving as overseers (1Pe 5:2).
Not by compulsion [not because you must, of constraint, of necessity].[ 17 ] Elders perform their work voluntarily. They do not need to be compelled to do so. They minister to the flock freely and willingly. This is not to say that they should never be paid (see note on 1Ti 5:17).
But willingly [according to the will of God, in keeping with God's will].[ 18 ] One of the attractive aspects of the Lord's church is that its work is not done out of pressure or coercion. Non-compulsory work done out of free will has a fascinating appeal. Because of this, it is not a burden. On the other hand, like any non-supervised work, it may become easy to shirk.
Lest elders and others find a loophole for neglect by the words "willingly" or "voluntarily," "according to the will of God" ought to preclude laziness.
Creative and innovative additions introduced into the work and worship of the church are not according to God's will and are forbidden by the statement, "according to the will of God." Elders need to be on guard for the introduction of innovative doctrines and practices not authorized in the holy word.
Not for dishonest gain [nor yet for filthy lucre, shameful gain, base gain, the sake of base gain].[ 19 ] If an unscrupulous elder took charge of the church treasury, he might improperly dip into it for personal use. Paul guarded against that kind of accusation against himself by not taking any pay from the church at Corinth (compare 1Co 9:12, 18; 2Co 12:14). When carrying the heavy contribution to Jerusalem, he had several faithful men to accompany him.
But eagerly [but readily, heartily, of a ready mind].[ 20 ] Elders are self-starters and finishers. They work because they want to. "Eagerly" describes their enthusiasm, fervor and zeal. They always exercise patience but they work with intensity and vigor.
[5:3] Nor as being lords over [not as, neither as, domineering over, lording it over].[ 21 ] Jesus pointed out that those recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over their subjects (Mk 10:42). Elders are not like the Gentile despots or tyrants. They never act like bossy civil dictators. They do not oppress, subjugate or dominate the members. Mind control as practiced by some cults is absolutely forbidden.
Those entrusted to you [those in your charge, God's heritage, the charge allotted to you, your possessions].[ 22 ] The Greek KLEEROON is plural and may be rendered "charges." The NKJV, NASB and some other versions accommodate the plural Greek word by rendering it "those," that is members "entrusted" or "allotted."
Various churches in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia had elders (see 1Pe 1:1). Elders in local congregations had "charges" or "those entrusted" to their care. Individual Christians were under a plurality of elders. No one elder or eldership in the first century was over more than one congregation. The exaltation of one elder, however, developed quite early. Later, one and then another of the exalted elders assumed responsibility over a few churches, some of which had their own elders. This was a direct violation of the will of God (see verse 2). Ruling bishops were called "archbishops." The heirarchy is not in line with biblical truths.
EXAMPLES, PATTERNS, MODELS
- An image or form. TUPOUS images which you made to worship them (Ac 7:43).
- Examples. TUPOI examples to the flock (1Pe 5:3).
- A writing copy. Christ also suffered for you, leaving you HUPOGRAMMON an example (1Pe 2:21).
- An antitype. Primarily the impression left by a stroke. ANTITUPON corresponding to that, baptism now saves you (1Pe 3:21).
- An architect's plan, sculptor's or painter's model. HUPODEIGMA an example to those who would live ungodly (2Pe 2:6).
(Compare Vincent 1.666, 667).
But being examples to the flock [but as, making yourselves, models, ensamples, for, of, the flock].[ 23 ] Notice the various Greek words the fisherman Peter uses for "example." He must have had a large vocabulary or else the Holy Spirit supplied his very words.
A false doctrine has arisen that denies that elders have any authority other than their examples. To use the present verse to support that idea is to miss the point. Jesus is our example (Joh 13:15; 1Pe 2:21). In spite of that, He gave commands (Joh 13:34; 14:15, 21, 23; 15:10, 12, 17; 1Jo 2:3, 4). We call Him "Teacher and Lord"[ 24 ] (Joh 13:13). The fact that He is an example does not nullify his rulership. The fact that elders are examples does not nullify their duty to make wise decisions as they lead the congregation. Please do not misunderstand and think that elders are rulers in the sense that Christ is. They rule under Him and obey His word. They are examples but they also rule. Not only are they to rule but should "rule well" (see 1Ti 5:7).
[5:4] And when the Chief Shepherd appears [and when the chief Shepherd shall appear, is, shall be, manifested]. The appearing or manifestation of the Chief Shepherd is the final coming of Christ (see Col 3:4; 1Jo 2:28; charts CHIEF SHEPHERD A and B). At His coming, all faithful Christians will receive the crown of life, that is, the crown which is eternal life (see note on 2Ti 4:8). A reward will be given to faithful elders.
CHIEF SHEPHERD (A)
- I will establish one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them-- My servant David. He shall feed them and be their shepherd (Eze 34:23; compare Eze 37:24).
- For it is written: "I will strike the Shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered" (Mk 14:27).
- I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd gives His life for the sheep (Joh 10:11).
- I know My sheep, and am known by My own (Joh 10:14).
CHIEF SHEPHERD (B)
- Now may the God of peace who brought up our Lord Jesus from the dead, that great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant (Heb 13:20).
- For you were like sheep going astray, but have now returned to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls (1Pe 2:25).
- And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that does not fade away (1Pe 5:4).
You will receive [ye shall obtain].[ 25 ] Previously, Peter used the same verb when he wrote, "KOMIZOMENOI receiving the end of your faith-- the salvation of your souls" (1Pe 1:9). The crown of glory may be understood to be eternal salvation.
CROWN OF GLORY
- Laid up for me the crown of righteousness (2Ti 4:8).
- For once he has been approved, he will receive the crown of life (Jas 1:12)
- Be faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of life (Re 2:10).
The crown of glory [a crown of glory].[ 26 ] The "crown of glory" is not a kingly crown but a garland of honor. Its figurative meaning is "the crown which is glory." Paul wrote:
For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us (Ro 8:18).
When Christ who is our life appears, then you also will appear with Him in glory (Col 3:4).
That does not fade away [unfading, that fadeth not away].[ 27 ] The fact that mention is made of the unfading nature of the crown suggests that the writer had in mind laurel or ivy crowns given to victorious soldiers or athletes (see note on 1Co 9:25). The difference is that the heavenly crown never wilts, never fades. Neither does the inheritance (1Pe 1:4).
ALL BE CLOTHED WITH HUMILITY
5:5 Likewise you younger people, submit yourselves to your elders. Yes, all of you be submissive to one another, and be clothed with humility, for "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble."
- Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake (1Pe 2:13).
- Servants, be submissive to your masters with all fear (1Pe 2:18).
- Wives, likewise, be submissive to your own husbands (1Pe 3:1).
- You younger people, submit yourselves to your elders (1Pe 5:5).
- Yes, all of you be submissive to one another, and be clothed with humility (1Pe 5:5).
Likewise you younger people [in the same way ye younger, that are younger].[ 28 ] "Younger" is plural in the Greek and may be rendered "younger men" or "younger people." In this Peter's first letter, he gives a series of instructions on submission (see chart SUBMISSION). He now concludes the series.
Submit yourselves to [be subject, are to be submissive, unto].[ 29 ] A young lady said she would probably never marry because she did not want to be in subjection. She correctly perceived that wives are to be in subjection to their husbands (see Eph 5:22-24; 1Pe 3:1). Consider that younger people are to be in subjection to their elders. All brothers and sisters are to clothe themselves with humility toward one another (compare 1Pe 3:8). Not only that, but all Christians are to submit "to one another in the fear of God" (Eph 5:21).
Your elders [the older, elder].[ 30 ] "Elders" is thought by some to be those ordained to rule in local churches. In verse 1, this is precisely the meaning. However, in my judgment, older brothers in Christ, whether ordained or not, are here put in contrast to "younger men." The Greek does not actually say "your" elders or "the" elders. If it did, it would suggest that they were the ordained men (see footnotes). Let us suppose the elders here are bishops of the church. Should younger people be in subjection to them? Yes. Suppose they are just older men. The same applies. Respect and honor should be given them as well.
Yes, all of you [all, and all, yea all, of you].[ 31 ] In case there is a disagreement as to whether the elders mentioned above are bishops or pastors, let it be observed that the exhortation to be submissive to one another has everyone doing it.
Be submissive to one another [be subject, to serve, one another, toward, towards, one to another].
And be clothed with humility [clothe, are to clothe, gird, yourselves, bind on, humility].[ 32 ] The noun corresponding to "be clothed" denotes a garment that is wrapped around or girded on. In first century Greek "be clothed" particularly alluded to a white apron or scarf worn by bondservants. Anyone wearing one of those aprons was identified as a slave. Figuratively, a Christian is to securely tie the "slave's apron" around his waste so that it never comes off. He always should be recognized as being in subjection to Christ, to the elders and to his brothers and sisters in Christ.
Before His crucifixion, Jesus took a towel and "DIEZOOSEN[ 33 ] girded Himself" (Joh 13:4). I am sure Peter recalled his own arrogant words to Jesus that night, "You shall never wash my feet!" (Joh 13:8; compare verses 9, 14, 15). Now he not only is figuratively wearing the slave's apron but he urges every Christian to do the same.
Toward one another [to serve one to another, to, towards, each other].[ 34 ] The lesson is one of humility. Humility is an inner attitude that expresses itself in submission to God and others, even toward His least disciple.
For God resists [for God opposes, resisteth, sets himself against].[ 35 ] Here is a motivation for humility. God is against proud people. He resists them.
Surely He scorns the scornful, but gives grace to the humble (Pr 3:34).
But He gives more grace. Therefore He says: "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble" (Jas 4:6).
THE PROUD (A)
- Pharaoh. Who is the LORD that I should obey His voice to let Israel go? (Ex 5:2).
- Naaman. Was furious and went away and said, "Indeed, I said to myself" (2Ki 5:11, 12).
- Uzziah. But when he was strong his heart was lifted up, to his destruction, for he transgressed against the LORD his God by entering the temple of the LORD to burn incense on the altar of incense (2Ch 26:16).
THE PROUD (B)
- Hezekiah. Did not repay according to the favor shown him, for his heart was lifted up; therefore wrath was looming over him (2Ch 32:25; compare verse 26).
- Haman. Mordecai did not bow or pay him homage, Haman was filled with wrath (Es 3:5).
- Nebuchadnezzar. Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for a royal dwelling by my mighty power and for the honor of my majesty? (Da 4:30).
- Belshazzar. You have lifted yourself up against the Lord of heaven (Da 5:23).
The proud [the arrogant].[ 36 ]
Pride goes before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall (Pr 16:18; compare 11:2; 18:12; Jer 49:16; Ob 3, 4; see charts THE PROUD A and B; GOD RESISTS THE PROUD).
GOD RESISTS THE PROUD
- Has scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts (Lu 1:51).
- Backbiters, haters of God, violent, proud, boasters (Ro 1:30).
- Lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy (2Ti 3:2).
- God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble (Jas 4:6; 1Pe 5:5).
But gives grace to the humble [and giveth, but he gives, grace to the humble, but to the humble gives grace].[ 37 ] Jesus was (is) "gentle and lowly in heart" (Mt 11:29). He blesses the lowly. His mercies and grace are indeed great:
For a mere moment I have forsaken you, but with great mercies I will gather you (Isa 54:7).
But He gives more grace. Therefore He says: "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble" (Jas 4:6).
This is in line with Jesus' explanation of why He spoke in parables.
For whoever has, to him more will be given, and he will have abundance; but whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken away from him (Mt 13:12).
HUMBLE YOURSELVES UNDER GOD
5:6, 7 Therefore humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt you in due time, 7 casting all your care upon Him, for He cares for you.
HUMILITY UNDER GOD (A)
- Jacob. Not worthy of the least of all the mercies and of all the truth which You have shown Your servant (Ge 32:10).
- David. Who am I, O Lord GOD, and what is my house? (2Sa 7:18).
- Solomon. I am but a little child; I do not know how to go out or come in (1Ki 3:7).
HUMILITY UNDER GOD (B)
- Centurion. Not worthy that you should come under my roof (Mt 8:8).
- Syrophoenician woman. Yes, Lord, yet even the little dogs eat the crumbs (Mt 15:27).
- Sinful woman. Stood at His feet behind Him weeping; and she began to wash His feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head (Lu 7:38).
- Pure and undefiled religion. To visit orphans and widows in their trouble (Jas 1:27).
Therefore humble yourselves [therefore, then, humble yourselves therefore].[ 38 ] Because of what Peter has said, it is imperative that Christians humble themselves under God's mighty hand. Humbling oneself before Him implies worshipping Him and obeying His will.
Under the mighty hand of God.[ 39 ] The mighty hand of God suggests His omnipotence. His irresistible power is both comforting and compelling.
That He may exalt you [that he may lift you up].[ 40 ] The only true exaltation is that which God gives.
For whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted (Lu 14:11; 18:14).
In due time [in the due time].[ 41 ] God's calendar does not match man's. People need to learn to wait upon Him and be content with what He does "in due time" or "at the proper time" (see chart IN DUE TIME).
IN DUE TIME
[A WORD STUDY]
- To give them food EN KAIROO in due season (Mt 24:45).
- To give them their portion of food EN KAIROO in due season (Lu 12:42).
- For while we were still helpless, KATA KAIRON in due time Christ died for the ungodly (Ro 5:6).
- Humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt you EN KAIROO in due time (1Pe 5:6).
[5:7] Casting [cast, having cast, committing].[ 42 ] The verb "casting" is in the aorist tense, suggesting that Christians are to cast their anxieties upon the Lord once and for all, never to take them up again. The background for this thought is in a Psalm of David.
Cast your burden on the LORD, and He shall sustain you; he shall never permit the righteous to be moved (Ps 55:22).
All your care upon Him [all your anxiety, anxieties, cares, on him, to him].[ 43 ] Jesus said:
Therefore I say to you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat or what you will drink; nor about your body, what you will put on. Is not life more than food and the body more than clothing? (Mt 6:25; compare verse 33).
For He cares for you [because he cares, careth, about you].[ 44 ] A proud person does not cast his anxiety upon anyone.
Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, and He will lift you up (Jas 4:10).
THE ADVERSARY PROWLS ABOUT
5:8 Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil walks about like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour.
Be sober [be vigilant, self-controlled awake].[ 45 ] A sober and serious spirit is one that is ready to pray, watch and do battle with evil (see 1Pe 1:13; 4:7).
- GREEGOREITE watch therefore, for you do not know what hour your Lord is coming (Mt 24:42).
- Stay here and GREEGOREITE watch with Me (Mt 26:38).
- GREEGOREITE watch and pray, lest you enter into temptation (Mt 26:41).
- GREEGOREITE watch therefore, for you do not know when the master of the house is coming (Mk 13:35).
- Be sober, GREEGOREESATE be vigilant; because your adversary the devil walks about (1Pe 5:8).
Be vigilant [watch, be watchful].[ 46 ] Trust in the Lord does not permit carelessness. Faithful Christians are alert and give attention to possible actions of the devil (see chart BE WATCHFUL).
Because your adversary [your adversary].[ 47 ] The devil is the adversary of every Christian (see Mt 13:25, 28, 39). He stood against Israel and He stands against the church.
Now Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel (1Ch 21:1)
Examples of those falsely accused by Satan are Job and Joshua the high priest. The devil said to God, "Does Job fear God for nothing?" (Job 1:9).
Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the Angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to oppose him. 2 And the LORD said to Satan, "The LORD rebuke you, Satan! The LORD who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you! Is this not a brand plucked from the fire?" (Zec 3:1, 2).
THE DEVIL (OT)
- Tempted Eve (Ge 3:4, 5).
- Moved David to number Israel (2Ch 21:1).
- Slandered Job (Job 1:9-11).
- Caused boils (Job 2:7).
- Opposed Joshua the high priest (Zec 3:1).
The devil [the devil].[ 48 ] The meaning of the word DIABOLOS devil indicates that he is a slanderer.[ 49 ] He is a false witness, a deceiver ( Re 20:10) and a malicious accuser (Re 12:10). Satan defames, besmirches, libels, misrepresents and maligns God's people. Through evil men he continues to deceive (2Ti 3:13). He is "the wicked one" or "the evil one" (see Mt 6:13; 13:19, 38; 1Jo 2:13). He tempted the Son of God (Mt 4:1). He is a murderer (Joh 8:44). His children wanted to kill Jesus (Joh 8:40).
TITLES OF THE DEVIL (A)
- Beelzebub the ruler of demons (Mt 12:24).
- A murderer . . a liar, the father of (Joh 8:44).
- Ruler of this world (Joh 12:31; 14:30; 16:11).
- The god of this world (2Co 4:4).
- Prince of the power of the air (Eph 2:2).
TITLES OF THE DEVIL (B)
- The wicked one (Eph 6:17).
- The angel of the bottomless pit, in Hebrew, Abaddon, in Greek, Apollyon (Re 9:11).
- That serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world (Re 12:9).
THE DEVIL (NT)
- Jesus tempted by devil (Mt 4:1-11; compare 1Jo 2:16).
- Eternal fire prepared for devil and his angels (Mt 25:41).
- Blinded minds of unbelieving (2Co 4:4).
- Deceived Eve by his craftiness (2Co 11:1-4).
- Fiery darts of the wicked one (Eph 6:16).
- Walks about like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour (1Pe 5:8).
Walks about [prowls, walketh, is going, round, around].[ 50 ] Some of the Greek philosophers were called "peripatetics" (walkers in Greek) probably because they strolled around teaching and debating. Satan never rests. He is always on the move. He is ever prowling around.
Like a roaring lion [as a roaring lion].[ 51 ] The Greek word for "roaring" sounds something like the roar of an animal or the sound made by a hungry beast (see footnote). Marvin Vincent points out that:
In Judges 14:5; Psalm 21:13; 103:21 (Septuagint), the same word as here is used for the roaring of the lion as a translation of the Hebrew word for the thunder in Job 37:4.[ 52 ]
In a cry of anguish, regarded as prophetic of those who double-crossed Christ and crucified Him, David wrote:
They gape at Me with their mouths, like a raging and roaring lion (Ps 22:13).
Lions are depicted as tearing the pray, eating people and making widows. Figuratively, they describe vicious rulers.
The conspiracy of her prophets in her midst is like a roaring lion tearing the prey; they have devoured people; they have taken treasure and precious things; they have made many widows in her midst (Eze 22:25).
Her princes in her midst are roaring lions; her judges are evening wolves that leave not a bone till morning (Zep 3:3).
There is the sound of wailing shepherds! For their glory is in ruins. There is the sound of roaring lions! For the pride of the Jordan is in ruins (Zec 11:3).
Jesus is the lion of the tribe of Judah (Re 5:5). Like a lion, He has great courage (Pr 28:1) and strength (Pr 30:30). As "a lion" He is victorious over sin and Satan.
Seeking.[ 53 ] Satan does a lot of "personal work." He is always looking for a prospect. His main target is individual Christians.
Whom he may devour [someone to devour].[ 54 ] Like a hungry animal that gulps and swallows down his prey, Satan prefers to make short work of his victims. It is his aim to cause souls to be lost, the quicker the better. He does not just attack the infirm and the stragglers. The apostles themselves were not off-limits to him. Jesus said to Simon, "Indeed, Satan has asked for you, that he may sift you as wheat" (Lu 22:31).
Satan's "mission statement" is to hurt and destroy. He is fierce and cruel like a man-eating lion that has tasted human flesh and become even more dangerous.
RESIST THE DEVIL
5:9 Resist him, steadfast in the faith, knowing that the same sufferings are experienced by your brotherhood in the world.
Resist him [whom withstand].[ 55 ] Christians must resist, oppose and stand up to Satan, firmly resisting his attacks (see charts HOW TO RESIST SATAN A and B). With the whole armor of God a Christian is enabled to stand against him (see charts HOW TO RESIST SATAN A and B).
HOW TO RESIST SATAN (A)
- Use Scripture (Mt 4:4, 7, 10).
- Pray (Lu 22:30, 31).
- Preach the word of God. Jesus sent Paul "To open their eyes so that they may turn from darkness to light and from the dominion of Satan to God in order that they may receive forgiveness" (Ac 26:18).
HOW TO RESIST SATAN (B)
- Do not let the sun go down on your wrath, nor give place to the devil (Eph 4:26, 27).
- Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil (Eph 6:11).
- Shield of faith: quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one (Eph 6:16).
- Submit to God. Resist the devil and he will flee from you (Jas 4:7).
Steadfast [firm, firmly].[ 56 ] A hypocrite may be tough and wiry. He may bend like a weed. A Christian is hard as a rock, solid as an army tank. Yet, he is gentle as a lamb. He is steadfast because he stands on a firm foundation (see 2Ti 2:19).
In the faith [in faith, in your faith].[ 57 ] In opinions, a Christian has liberty to compromise but in matters of faith he stands like a stone wall. He has unwavering trust in God's word.[ 58 ] A strong faith is maintained by a constant study of the word (Joh 20:30, 31; Ro 10:9, 10). He makes continuous use of the word of God which is the sword of the Spirit (Eph 6:17; 2Jo 9; Jude 3). When Jesus resisted Satan's temptations, He kept saying to him, "It is written" (see Mt 4:4, 6, 7, 10).
Knowing that.[ 59 ] Remembering the sufferings of Stephen, James, Paul and others helps strengthen Christians in the time of persecution.
The same sufferings are experienced [the selfsame suffering, afflictions, experience of suffering, is required, are accomplished, is being completed].[ 60 ] If only one Christian were singled out to endure every affliction, it would be terrifying. However, it offers some encouragement to the one suffering to know that other Christians are enduring similar temptations, trials and distress.
The Greek present tense indicates the experiences of suffering Christians were, at that very time, already begun and were continuing to be accomplished.
By your brotherhood [in, of, your brethren].[ 61 ] Persecution was so general, that Peter used the term "brotherhood." He had previously written, "Love the brotherhood" (1Pe 2:17).
In the world [throughout, that, who, are in, which is in, the world].[ 62 ] In many parts of the world, especially in the Roman Empire, Christians were being persecuted. The particular outbreak of which Peter spoke began after the great fire in Rome in AD 64. Non-Christian Tacitus wrote about the martyrdom of Christians under Nero:
Their death was made a matter of sport; they were covered in wild beast's skins and torn to pieces by dogs; or were fastened to crosses and set on fire in order to serve as torches by night . . . Nero had offered his gardens for the spectacle and gave an exhibition in his circus, mingling with the crowd in the guise of a charioteer or mounted on his chariot. Hence, . . . there arose a feeling of pity, because it was felt that they were being sacrificed not for the common good, but to gratify the savagery of one man.[ 63 ]
AFTER SUFFERING A LITTLE WHILE
5:10 But may the God of all grace, who called us to His eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after you have suffered a while, perfect, establish, strengthen, and settle you.
GOD OF ALL GRACE (OT, A)
- God of truth (De 32:4; Ps 31:5; Isa 65:16).
- The living God (Jos 3:10; Ps 42:2; 84:2; Jer 10:10; Da 6:26; Mt 26:63; Ro 9:26; 1Th 1:9).
- The God of heaven (Ezr 5:11, 12; 6:9, 10; 7:12, 21, 23; Ps 136:26; Da 2:18, 19, 37, 44).
- God of my life (Ps 42:8).
GOD OF ALL GRACE (OT, B)
- God my exceeding joy (Ps 43:4).
- God of our salvation (Ps 68:19, 20).
- God of recompense (Jer 51:56).
- The God of gods (Da 2:47; 11:36).
GOD OF ALL GRACE (NT)
- The God of glory (Ac 7:2).
- Of peace (Ro 15:33; 16:20; Php 4:9; 1Th 5:23; Heb 13:20).
- The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ (2Co 1:3).
- Of all comfort (2Co 1:3).
- Of love and peace (2Co 13:11).
THE GOD OF PEOPLE
- The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (Ex 3:6; Ac 7:32).
- The God of Shadrach, Meshech and Obednigo (Da 3:28, 29).
- The God of Jacob, Israel (Ps 146:5; Ezr 5:1; 7:15).
- The God of Jerusalem (Ezr 7:19).
- The God of our fathers (Ezr 7:27).
But may the God of all grace [but, and, the God of all grace].[ 64 ] God is "the Lord of hosts" (Jer 32:18).[ 65 ] He is also the God of all grace. His grace is manifold (1Pe 4:10). There is no other source of saving grace (see Ac 4:12). Paul's reference to the "grace of Christ" is suggestive of the deity of Jesus.
I marvel that you are turning away so soon from Him who called you in the grace of Christ, to a different gospel, (Ga 1:6).
Who called us [who has, hath, called you].[ 66 ] The Greek aorist tense of "called" alludes to the time when Peter's readers heard the gospel and obeyed it. God calls sinners into His kingdom of grace by the gospel (Ro 1:16; 2Th 2:14). He calls them into fellowship with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord (1Co 1:9).
To His eternal glory [unto, into, his eternal glory].[ 67 ] Paul looked forward to an "eternal weight of glory" far beyond all comparison (2Co 4:17). The glory of heavenly salvation is eternal. It will never end.
By Christ Jesus [in Christ, in Jesus Christ].[ 68 ] Many translators, instead of correctly rendering the phrase, "in Christ Jesus" because it better indicates the sphere into which one is called and in which all spiritual blessings flow (see note on Eph 1:3). Penitent sinners are transferred into Him when they are baptized and forgiven (Ro 6:3, 4; Ga 3:26, 27).
After you have suffered [when, after that, ye have suffered].[ 69 ] All the godly suffer (2Th 3:12). This was especially true of Peter's readers. For them, pain and sorrow would one day come to an end. There would be sweet rest from labors. Tears would be wiped away. Of course, these blessings come to all faithful Christians.
MAY GOD PERFECT YOU
[A WORD STUDY]
- Everyone who KATEERTISMENOS is perfectly trained will be like his teacher (Lu 6:40).
- No divisions among you, but you KATEERTISMENOI be perfectly joined together (1Co 1:10).
- KATARTIZESTHE become complete (2Co 13:11).
- KATARTIZETE restore such a one (Ga 6:1).
- And KATARTISAI perfect what is lacking in your faith (1Th 3:10).
PERFECT [A WORD STUDY]
- KATARTIZONTAS mending nets (Mt 4:21).
- But a body You have KATEERTISOO prepared for Me (Heb 10:5).
- The worlds KATEERTISTHAI were framed by the word of God (Heb 11:3).
A while [for a, little, little while].[ 70 ] The suffering of Peter's readers was due to the distress of "various trials."
In this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been grieved by various trials (1Pe 1:6).
Perfect [will, shall, himself, himself shall, restore, make, make you, complete].[ 71 ] The Received Text makes this and the three following verbs in the optative mood. The optative mood expresses a wish. The texts from which many modern versions are translated make them all indicative future. In these versions, the wish or prayer becomes an assurance.[ 72 ]
Establish [stablish, steadfast, confirm].[ 73 ] God will establish the frail and delicate Christians to make them hardy and robust.
My soul melts from heaviness; strengthen me according to Your word (Ps 119:28).
CONFIRMED AND STRENGTHENED
- When you have returned to Me, strengthen your brethren (Lu 22:32).
- So that He may establish your hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father (1Th 3:13).
- Comfort your hearts and establish you in every good word and work (2Th 2:17).
- Be patient. Establish your hearts (Jas 5:8).
- Be watchful, and strengthen the things that remain (Re 3:2).
Strengthen [and strengthen you, strong].[ 74 ] "Strengthen" is another word that indicates God imparts vitality to Christians. Paul prayed for the saints at Ephesus:
That He would grant you, according to the riches of His glory, to be strengthened with might through His Spirit in the inner man (Eph 3:16).
The immediate text does not clearly state how the strengthening is done whether directly or through the agency of the NT. Many understand it to be the latter because of the sufficiency of the word (2Ti 3:16, 17).
[A WORD STUDY]
- For it TETHEMELIOOTO was founded on the rock (Mt 7:25).
- Being rooted and TETHEMELIOOMENOI grounded in love (Eph 3:17).
- In the beginning ETHEMELIOOSAS laid the foundation of the earth (Heb 1:10).
And settle you [ground, settle, you, unwavering].[ 75 ] "Settle you" is not carried in versions such as the ASV and RSV. Marvin Vincent points out that the forceful expressions "perfect, establish, strengthen and settle you" joined together imply strong feeling. With the very letter Peter was writing, he was strengthening his brethren as instructed by Jesus.
But I have prayed for you, that your faith should not fail; and when you have returned to Me, strengthen your brethren (Lu 22:32).
So when they had eaten breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love Me more than these?" He said to Him, "Yes, Lord; You know that I love You." He said to him, "Feed My lambs." 16 He said to him again a second time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love Me?" He said to Him, "Yes, Lord; You know that I love You." He said to him, "Tend My sheep." 17 He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love Me?" Peter was grieved because He said to him the third time, "Do you love Me?" And he said to Him, "Lord, You know all things; You know that I love You." Jesus said to him, "Feed My sheep" (Joh 21:15-17).
GLORY AND DOMINION FOREVER
5:11 To Him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.
To Him be the glory and the dominion [unto him be glory and dominion, the power, the might][ 76 ] It is comforting to know that God, not Satan, is forever on the glorious throne of the universe (see note on 1Pe 4:11).
Forever and ever [forever, for the ages of the ages].[ 77 ]
The LORD sat enthroned at the Flood, and the LORD sits as King forever (Ps 29:10).
Amen.[ 78 ] The doxology (praise to God) has ended with an appropriate "Amen!" It is so!
5:12 By Silvanus, our faithful brother as I consider him, I have written to you briefly, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God in which you stand.
By Silvanus [through Silvanus].[ 79 ] It is difficult to determine just how the letter from Peter was "by" or "through" Silvanus. He may have acted as secretary or amanuensis. He may have assisted in some other way. Some think he travelled with the letter to deliver it to all the churches to whom it was addressed. He may have read it aloud to several congregations. He may have done all of these.
It is generally thought that Silvanus is the same as Silas. If so, he was one of the leading men from Jerusalem selected along with Paul and Barnabas to go to Antioch with the Jerusalem letter, where he remained (Ac 15:22, 27, 34). Silas was a prophet (Ac 15:32). Paul chose him as a traveling companion (Ac 15:40). He preached at Corinth (2Co 1:19). He joined Timothy in the letters to Thessalonica. He was well-known there (1Th 1:1; 2Th 1:1).
Our faithful brother [a, the, faithful brother, brother unto you].[ 80 ] After Paul's final arrest, I wonder if Silas became a close associate of Peter.
As I consider him [as I suppose, account, regard, him].[ 81 ] Peter did not have any doubts or misgivings about Silvanus. He was a faithful and trustworthy brother in Christ.
I have written to you [I have written, written unto you].[ 82 ]
Briefly [brief, in a few words].[ 83 ] The Hebrew writer also said, "I have written to you DIA BRACHEOON in few words" (Heb 13:22). To him, thirteen chapters were just "a few words."
Exhorting.[ 84 ] Peter is encouraging his readers by this appeal.
And testifying [and declaring].[ 85 ] Undoubtedly, Paul and Silas had preached to many of the people to whom Peter was writing. Peter now adds his testimony to the inspired teaching as being the true grace of God. That is, his testimony was inspired as well.
THE TRUE GRACE OF GOD
- Sprinkling of Christ's blood to cleanse hearts (1Pe 1:2, 18, 19).
- Eternal salvation (1Pe 1:9).
- Chosen by God (1Pe 2:9).
- Called (1Pe 2:21).
- Saved by baptism (1Pe 3:21).
- Suffering (1Pe 4:19).
- Perfection, establishing, strengthening (1Pe 5:10).
That this is the true grace of God.[ 86 ] The grace of God is expressed in Peter's letter, as well as in all the NT books. The expression refers to what God's grace accomplishes. Salvation is not accomplished through the Law of Moses, by science or human philosophy. It is accomplished by the "true grace of God" (see chart THE TRUE GRACE OF GOD).
For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men, 12 teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly in the present age (Tit 2:11, 12).
In which you stand [wherein ye stand, be established, stand fast, stand ye fast, therein, in it].[ 87 ] Some time ago I received a personal letter from an old friend and missionary overseas in which he mentioned a recent visit to the United States and to a specific congregation known to us both. He wrote:
It was truly good to see old friends, but my heart really ached in the disappointment in some of the things I saw and heard. I really hate to see people try to modernize the Gospel, which is a timeless treasure that should be kept intact at all costs. In fact, I have tears in my eyes now as I think about it.
He went on to say:
As groups change towards the undesirable, with the Lord's blessings, they can also be changed back, with a more ardent, determined heart to follow just the truth. Let us keep on praying, having hopes, and working where we can to encourage that to happen.[ 88 ]
SHE WHO IS IN BABYLON GREETS YOU
5:13 She who is in Babylon, elect together with you, greets you; and so does Mark my son.
She who is in Babylon [the church in, that is at, Babylon].[ 89 ] Notice that in some versions the word "church" is in italics, indicating it was supplied by the translators.[ 90 ] Scholars are not at all agreed on this. Some have suggested "she" was Peter's wife or some other prominent woman. I doubt that he would have sent greetings from a woman to so many churches without mentioning her name unless she happened to be his own wife.
Literal Babylon was a city on the Euphrates River. A rule of interpretation is to take a passage literally unless there is a reason to make it figurative. In the present case, I am not certain. If Peter referred to a congregation, I have wondered what he meant by Babylon because the old city on the Euphrates did not amount to much at the time he wrote. Some authorities say there was a still population of Jews in the vicinity of literal Babylon. Perhaps after the captivity, several remained behind when Nehemiah and Ezra returned to Jerusalem.
If Peter meant by "Babylon" the church in Jerusalem, he may have used cryptic language so that the persecuted Gentile churches could understand that the Jewish church was also in trouble. I doubt that most of his readers were Jewish Christians, but if they were, perhaps by "Babylon" he was alluding to Gentile churches of Christ.
Some interpreters think "Babylon" is symbolic of Rome. There is little doubt that Paul was imprisoned twice in Italy and then beheaded on the Ostian Way a modest distance southwest of ancient Rome. In Rome and other cities in Italy, there is an abundance of paintings, frescoes and statues of Peter, not a few of which depict him being crucified head downward. Nevertheless, some scholars remain unconvinced that Peter ever did any evangelistic work there.
Evidently Peter was in "Babylon" when he wrote the letter. Apparently, Silvanus (Silas) and Marcus (John Mark) were with him.
Elect together with you [who is likewise chosen, elected together, that is elected, the called, with you].[ 91 ] Peter had informed his readers that they were "chosen" (1Pe 1:1, 2). If by "She who is in Babylon" he alludes to the church in Jerusalem, the phrase "together with you" makes some sense. If the readers understood it this way, the fellowship of all the saints would be cemented. Peter may have been giving assurance that both Jewish and Gentile Christians were God's chosen.
Greets you [salutes, saluteth, greet, you, sends you greetings].[ 92 ]
And so does Mark my son [and so doth my son Mark, also, and, Marcus my son].[ 93 ] Some have taken this literally and said that John Mark was Peter's own son. Others, myself included, understand him to have been converted or at least nurtured by Peter and as such was his "son in the faith."
Mark [Marcus].[ 94 ] I suppose this "Mark" is the same as John Mark, cousin of Barnabas (Col 4:10), and writer of the Gospel of Mark (see also 2Ti 4:11; Ac 12:25; 13:5, 13; 15:37, 39; Phm 24). If so, it is interesting that after Peter was miraculously released from prison he went to the "house of Mary, the mother of John" (Ac 12:12). Those who would make Mary Peter's wife and John Mark his literal son have difficulty explaining why the house was not called "Peter's house" (as was the fine structure he owned in Capernaum (see Mt 8:14).
GREET WITH A KISS OF LOVE
5:14 Greet one another with a kiss of love. Peace to you all who are in Christ Jesus. Amen.
Greet one another [greet ye, salute, one another].[ 95 ] A congenial hand-shake, an affectionate hug or friendly smile is a greeting.
With a kiss of love [with the kiss, in a kiss, of love, of charity].[ 96 ] Guy N. Woods gave the following thought:
Throughout the biblical period, from Adam to John on Patmos, and in eastern lands to this day, greeting, by means of the kiss, has been and is practiced. Because it was a custom common to the day and the lands in which they lived, early christians observed it. There are numerous allusions thereto in the writings of the "church fathers," as well as in the NT. The custom is mentioned by Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Chrysostom, Augustine and various other ancient writers, and it is referred to, in addition to the instances mentioned in the foregoing question, in 1 Corinthians 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:12; and 1 Thessalonians 5:26. . . Kissing, as a mode of greeting, was no more sanctioned than hands-shaking is today, both methods being customs of the times. Inasmuch as Christianity requires sincerity in this mode of greeting today, so it enjoined it in the kiss of greeting in that day. It was to be "holy," hence, not impure; the "kiss of love," prompted by love, and in exhibition of it.[ 97 ]
Peace to you all [peace be with, unto, all of you].[ 98 ]
Who are in Christ Jesus [that are in Christ, Christ Jesus].[ 99 ] Baptism brings one into Christ (Ro 6:3; Ga 3:27). In Him are all spiritual blessings (Eph 1:3). One of these blessings is peace with God (see Ro 5:1, 2).
Amen. This final "Amen" appears in the Greek Received Text and is carried by the KJV and NKJV but not in Nestle, the UBS3[ 100 ] or the ASV and some other versions.
[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]PRESBUTEROUS OUN, elders therefore (Marshall 920); inferential, denoting that what it introduces is the result of or an inference from what precedes so, therefore, consequently, accordingly, then; PRESBUTEROUS is the comparative degree of PRESBUS an old man, an elder; the duty of elders is described by the verb EPISKOPEOO to oversee; as the designation of an official (Arndt 593, 700); they were appointed according as they had given evidence of fulfilling the Divine qualifications, Titus 1:6 to 9; compare 1 Timothy 3:1-7 and 1 Peter 5:2 (Vine 350, 351); so the elders (Williams); elders then (Lenski 215).
[ 3 ]EN HUMIN, among you (Marshall 920; Williams); literally, in you; with, among, in the presence of, with dative of person (Thayer 210); in your care (Lenski 215).
[ 4 ]PARAKALOO, I exhort (Marshall 920); primarily, call to a person [PARA to the side, KALEOO to call] (Vine 390); appeal to, urge, exhort, encourage, with accusative of the persons and direct discourse (Arndt 617); admonish, exhort (Thayer 482); I beg (Williams); I urge (Lenski 215).
[ 5 ]HO SUMPRESBUTEROS, a fellow-elder [SUN with] (Vine 351); the co-elder (Marshall 920); fellow-elder. The expression is decisive against the primacy of Peter (Vincent l.664); the fellow elder (Lenski 215); a joint-elder (Williams).
[ 6 ]KAI MARTUS, and witness (Marshall 920; Lenski 215); [whence English MARTYR one who bears witness by his death], denotes one who can or does aver what he has seen or heard or knows (Vine 1237); not limited to the mere fact of having seen what he preached; especially since, when he wishes to emphasize this fact, he employs another word, EPOPTEES [eyewitnesses, 2Pe 1:16]. Therefore he speaks of himself as a witness, especially in the sense of being called to testify of what he has seen (Vincent 1.665); a witness (Williams).
[ 7 ]TOON TOU CHRISTOU PATHEEMATOON, of the of Christ sufferings (Marshall 920); sufferings, misfortunes, calamities, evils, afflictions, which Christ suffered (Thayer 472); of the suffering borne by Christ (Williams); of the sufferings of Christ (Lenski 215).
[ 8 ]KOINOONOS, sharer (Marshall 920); an adjective, signifying having in common [KOINOS common], used as a noun denoting a companion, partner, partaker (Vine 833); sharer (Marshall 920); this use of the word, expressing a present realization of something not yet attained, occurs in no other writer in the NT (Vincent 1.665); the partaker (Lenski 215); a sharer (Williams).
[ 9 ]HO KAI TEES DOXEES, the also of the glory (Marshall 920); of the state of blessedness into which believers are to enter hereafter through being brought into the likeness of Christ (Vine 483); the glorious condition of blessedness into which it is appointed and promised that true Christians shall enter after their Savior's return from heaven (Thayer 156); of the glory (Williams); also of the glory (Lenski 215).
[ 10 ]TEES MELLOUSEES APOKALUPTESTHAI, the being about to be revealed (Marshall 920); the salvation and glory that await the believer (Vine 964); that is to be uncovered (Williams); about to be revealed (Lenski 215).
[ 11 ]POIMANATE, shepherd (Marshall 920; Lenski 215); act as a shepherd [from POIMEEN a shepherd] of those who act as spiritual shepherds under [Christ] (Vine 417); shepherd (Marshall 920); tend . . . the verb denotes all that is included in the office of a shepherd--guiding, guarding, folding, no less than feeding, which latter is expressed by BOSKOO (Vincent 1.665); feed [from POIMAINOO to feed, pasture, tend a flock], to see that the congregation is cared for and guarded against worldliness, unfaithfulness, false teaching, and the like (Littrell); be shepherds (Williams).
[ 12 ]TO POIMNION TOU THEOU, the flock of God (Marshall 920; Lenski 215); possibly a diminutive of POIMNEE [akin to POIMEEN a shepherd], is used in the NT only metaphorically, of a group of Christ's disciples . . . of local churches cared for by elders (Vine 439); of the flock of God (Williams).
[ 13 ]OIKONOMON, a steward, primarily denoted the manager of a household or estate [OIKOS a house, NEMOO to arrange], used of elders or bishops in the churches (Vine 1087). Ancient stewards managed that which belonged to another (see Tit 1:7).
[ 14 ]EN HUMIN, among you (Marshall 920; Lenski 215); literally, in you; with, among, in the presence of, with dative of person (Thayer 210); that is among you (Williams).
[ 15 ]Benevolent work is not limited to members of the local church (compare Ro 9:13; Ga 6:10). Neither is evangelism (Mk 16:15; consider Peter's own work in other places).
[ 16 ]EPISKOPEOO [Received Text], literally, look upon [EPI upon, SKOPEOO to look at, contemplate] [some ancient authorities omit it] (Vine 824); look upon, inspect, oversee, look after, care for: spoken of the care of the church which rested upon the presbyters, 1 Peter 5:2 (Thayer 242); overseeing it (Lenski 215).
[ 17 ]MEE ANANKASTOOS, not by way of compulsion (Marshall 920); [not] by force, unwillingly, by constraint (Vine 224); [not] by force or constraint; opposite to HEKOUSIOOS voluntary, of free will (Thayer 36, 198); not constrainedly (Lenski 215); not as though you had to (Williams).
[ 18 ]ALLA HEKOUSIOOS KATA THEON, but willingly according to God (Marshall 920); denotes voluntarily, willingly [of exercising oversight over the flock of God] (Vine 1228); voluntarily, willingly, of one's own accord (Thayer 198); but of your own free will (Williams); but voluntarily in accord with God (Lenski 215).
[ 19 ]MEEDE AISCHROKERDOOS, nor from eagerness for base gain (Marshall 921); [from AISCHROS disgraceful KERDOS gain], the word filthy is intend to convey the idea which lies in AISCHROS, base or dishonorable; becoming such if it is made the motive of the minister's service (Vincent 1.665, 666); an adjective, denotes "from eagerness for base gain" (Vine 6986); adverb, from eagerness for base gain (Thayer 17).
[ 20 ]ALLA PROTHUMOOS, but eagerly (Marshall 921; Lenski 215); willingly, with alacrity (Vine 923); [PRO forward, THUMOS heart or spirit], with a ready mind; a forward spirit; denoting not mere willingness, but zeal (Vincent 1.666); willingly, with alacrity (Thayer 539); but freely (Williams).
[ 21 ]MEED' HOOS KATAKURIEUONTES, nor as exercising lordship over (Marshall 921); high-haded rule (Vincent 1.666); a strengthened form of KURIEUOO to be lord of, to exercise lordship over] (Vine 690); holding in subjection, being master of, exercising lordship over (Thayer 332).
[ 22 ]TOON KLEEROON, the lots (Marshall 921); plural. KLEEROS means a lot. Revised renders charge. Why not charges? (Vincent 1.666); KLEEROS=a lot, allotment, heritage [whence English "clergy"] . . . here the word is plural, literally, "charges" (Vine 173); of persons, HOI KLEEROI, those whose care and oversight has been assigned to one [allotted charge], used of Christian churches, the administration of which falls to the lot of the presbyters (Thayer 349).
[ 23 ]ALLA TUPOI GINOMENOI TOU POIMNIOU, but examples becoming of the flock [that is, the various spheres assigned to the elders] (Marshall 921); an example, pattern, in an ethical sense (Vine 363);in an ethical sense, examples to be imitated: with a genitive of the persons to whom the example is offered (Thayer 632); but proving yourselves models for the flock (Williams); but as being examples to the flock (Lenski 215).
[ 24 ]HO KURIOS, the Lord or the Ruler (Joh 13:13).
[ 25 ]KOMIEISTHE, ye will receive (Marshall 921); KOMIZOO denotes to bear, carry, in the middle voice, to bear for oneself, hence to receive (Vine 929); receive, obtain (Thayer 354); you will receive (Williams); you will bring away (Lenski 220).
[ 26 ]TEES DOXEES STEPHANON, of glory crown (Marshall 921); [from STEPHOO to put round, encircle], it is the crown of victory in the games; of military valor; the marriage wreath, or the festal garland, woven of leaves or made of gold in imitation of leaves. Thus it is distinguished from the royal crown, which is DIADEEMA, of which diadem is a transcript (Vincent 1.667); in some passages the reference to the games is clear [1Co 9:25; 2Ti 4:8]; it may be so in 1 Peter 5:4, where the fadeless character of "the crown of glory" is set in contrast to the garlands of earth (Vine 250); the eternal blessedness which will be given as a prize to the genuine servants of God and Christ; good opinion concerning one, and as resulting from that, praise, honor, glory (Thayer 155, 587); the glorious crown (Williams); crown of glory (Lenski 220).
[ 27 ]TON AMARANTINON, the unfading (Marshall 921); negative adjective [A negative, MARAINOO, in the passive, to waste away], primarily signifies composed of amaranth [an unfading flower, a symbol of perpetuity, see Paradise Lost 3.353], of the crown of glory promised to faithful elders (Vine 398); unfading (Lenski 220); that never fades (Williams).
[ 28 ]HOMOIOOS, NEOOTEROI, likewise, younger men (Marshall 921; in like manner [from the adjective HOMOIOOS like, resembling, such as, the same as] (Vine 674); younger (Vine 1259); young men, opposite PRESBUTEROI (Arndt 536); young, youthful, opposite to PRESBUTEROI (Thayer 425); you younger men on your part (Williams).
[ 29 ]HUPOTAGEETE, submit yourselves (Marshall 921); primarily a military term, to rank under HUPO under, TASSOO to arrange], denotes in the middle or passive voice, to subject oneself, to obey, be subject to (Vine 1099); middle [voice], subject one's self, obey, submit to one's control; yield to one's admonition or advice (Thayer 645); must be submissive (Williams); be in subjection (Lenski 221).
[ 30 ]PRESBUTEROIS, to older men (Marshall 921); among Christians, those who presided over the assemblies [or churches] (Thayer 536); as designation of an official [compare Latin senator] elder, presbyter (Arndt 700); to elders! (Lenski 221); to the elders (Williams).
[ 31 ]PANTES DE, and all (Marshall 921); do you all (Lenski 921); and you must all (Williams).
[ 32 ]TEEN TAPEINOPHROSUNEEN ENKOMBOOSASTHE, humility gird ye on (Marshall 921); ENKOMBOOSASTHE is second person plural, first aorist middle imperative of ENKOMBOOMAI (Han 421); the last word is a very peculiar one, occurring only here. It is derived from KOMBOS a roll, band or girth: a knot or roll of cloth, made in tying or tucking up any part of the dress. The kindred word ENKOMBOOMA, from which the verb is directly formed, means a slave's apron, under which the loose garments were girt up (Vincent 1.667, 668); gird oneself with (Vine 190); the ENKOMBOOMA was the white scarf or apron of slaves, which was fastened to the girdle of the vest [EXOOMIS], and distinguished slaves from freemen; hence 1 Peter 5:5 . . . gird yourselves with humility as your servile garb [ENKOMBOOMA], that is, by putting on humility show your subjection one to another (Thayer 166); the noun from which [ENKOMBOOSASTHE] is derived [KOMBOS] signifies a knot; and the noun [sic] form means to tie with a knot (Woods 128); put on the servant's apron [Greek verb means to put a waiter's apron on to serve] (Williams); apron yourselves with lowly-mindedness (Lenski 221).
[ 33 ]Girded round, that is, firmly [DIA throughout, used intensively], is used of the Lord's act in girding Himself with a towel, John 13:4, 5, and of Peter's girding himself with his coat, 21:7 (Vine 478).
[ 34 ]ALLEELOIS, to one another (Marshall 921; Williams); the dative ALLEELOIS denotes "one to another" (Vine 811); with respect to each other (Lenski 221).
[ 35 ]HOTI HO THEOS ANTITASSETAI, because God resists (Marshall 921; Lenski 223); a strong and graphic word. Literally, setteth himself in array against, as one draws out a host for battle (Vincent 1.668); of God, negatively, of leaving persistent evildoers to pursue their self-determined course, with eventual retribution (Vine 958); opposes one's self, resists (Thayer 51); because God opposes (Williams).
[ 36 ]HUPEREEPHANOIS, arrogant men (Marshall 921); signifies showing oneself above others, pre-eminent [HUPER above, PHAINOMAI to appear, be manifest]; it is always used in Scripture in the bad sense of arrogant, disdainful, proud (Vine 898); in a bad sense, with an overweening estimate of one's means or merits, despising others or even treating them with contempt, haughty (Thayer 641); haughty ones (Lenski 223); the haughty (Williams).
[ 37 ]TAPEINOIS DE DIDOOSIN CHARIN, but to humble men he gives grace (Marshall 921); primarily signifies low-lying. It is used always in a good sense in the NT, metaphorically, to denote . . . humble in spirit (Vine 568); lowly in spirit, humble (Thayer 614); but bestows His unmerited favor on the humble (Williams); but gives grace to lowly ones (Lenski 223).
[ 38 ]TAPEINOOTHEETE OUN, be ye humbled therefore (Marshall 921); signifies to make low, metaphorically, in passive voice with middle sense, humble yourselves (Vine 569); in exhortations [to show what ought now to be done by reason of what has been said], that is, wherefore, [our transitional therefore]; submit one's self in a lowly spirit to the power and will of God (Thayer 463, 615); submit therefore (Williams); accordingly be lowly (Lenski 224).
[ 39 ]HUPO TEEN KRATAIAN CHEIRA TOU THEOU, under the mighty hand of God (Marshall 921; Lenski 224); strong, mighty [akin to KRATOS strength, relative and manifested power, of the "mighty" hand of God (Vine 739); mighty, that is, the power of God (Thayer 358); to God's strong hand (Williams).
[ 40 ]HINA HUMAS HUPSOOSEE, in order that you he may exalt (Marshall 921); of spiritual uplifting and revival (Vine 383); raise the spirits by blessings of salvation (Thayer 647); that he may exalt you (Lenski 224); so that he may exalt you (Williams).
[ 41 ]EN KAIROO, in time (Marshall 921); in the phrases "in due season" [see chart IN DUE TIME], there is no word representing "due" in the original, and the phrases are, literally, "in season," "in time" (Vine 335); with the genitive of a thing, the time of, etc., that is, at which it will occur (Thayer 318); at the proper time (Williams); in due season (Lenski 224).
[ 42 ]EPERHRIPSANTES, casting (Marshall 921; Lenski 224); the aorist participle denoting an act once for all; throwing the whole life with its care on him (Vincent 1.668); figuratively, of casting care upon God (Vine 164); cast upon, give up to, God (Thayer 242); figuratively, cast one's care upon God (Arndt 298); cast (Williams).
[ 43 ]PASAN TEEN MERIMNAN HUMOON EP' AUTON, all the anxiety of you on him (Marshall 921); the whole of your care, anxiety (Vincent 1.668); probably connected with MERIZOO, to draw in different directions, distract, hence signifies that which causes this, a care, especially an anxious care (Vine 160); care, anxiety (Thayer 400); all your worry upon him (Lenski 224); every worry you have upon Him (Williams).
[ 44 ]HOTI AUTOO MELEI PERI HUMOON, because to him it matters concerning you (Marshall 921); the watchful care of interest and affection (Vincent 1.669); a care or concern to someone . . . followed by PERI TINOS about someone or something (Arndt 500); genitive of object, care about, have regard for, a person or a thing (Thayer 396); MELEI is the third person singular of MELOO, used impersonally, signifies that something is an object of care, especially the care of forethought and interest, rather than anxiety (Vine 161); because he is caring for you (Lenski 224); because He cares for you (Williams).
[ 45 ]NEEPSATE, be ye sober (Marshall 921); signifies to be free from the influence of intoxicants; in the NT, metaphorically, it does not in itself imply watchfulness, but is used in association with it (Vine 1057); be sober (Lenski 225); be calm (Williams).
[ 46 ]GREEGOREESATE, watch ye (Marshall 921); watch, used of spiritual alertness (Vine 1213); metaphorically, watch, that is, give strict attention to, be cautious, active--take heed lest through remissness and indolence some destructive calamity suddenly overtake one (Thayer 122); and alert (Williams).
[ 47 ]HO ANTIDIKOS HUMOON, the adversary of you (Marshall 921); [from ANTI against, DIKEE a lawsuit], here an adversary in general the article points to a well-known adversary . . . Satan (Vincent 1.669); firstly, an opponent in a lawsuit . . . also used to denote an adversary or an enemy, without reference to legal affairs, and this is perhaps its meaning in 1 Peter 5:8, where it is used of the Devil. Some would regard the word as there used in a legal sense, since the Devil accuses men before God (Vine 26); your opponent (Lenski 225; Williams).
[ 48 ]DIABOLOS, [the] devil (Marshall 921; Lenski 225); an accuser, a slanderer [from DIABALLOO to accuse, to malign], is one of the names of Satan. From it the English word "Devil" is derived, and should be applied only to Satan, as a proper name. . . There is one Devil, there are many demons (Vine 298).
[ 49 ]DIABOLOS appears in three NT passages as a lable for people who are of evil disposition or are slanderers (1Ti 3:11; 2Ti 3:3; Tit 2:3). The word "devil" occurs 35 times in the NKJV. In the KJV, "devil" is used to translate DAIMONION demon.
[ 50 ]PERIPATEI, walks about (Marshall 921); this word gave name to that sect of Greek philosophers known as Peripatetics, because they walked about while teaching or disputing (Vincent 1.670); [as a roaring lion] walks (Lenski 225); is always prowling about (Williams).
[ 51 ]HOS OORUOMENOS LEOON, as roaring a lion (Marshall 921); conveys somewhat of the sense by the sound [OORUOMENOS]. It denotes especially the howl of a beast in fierce hunger (Vincent 1.669); howling or roaring, onomatopoeic, of animals or men, used of a lion as a simile of Satan; a literal meaning (Vine 676, 973); like a roaring lion (Williams); as a roaring lion (Lenski 225).
[ 52 ]Vincent 1.669.
[ 53 ]ZEETOON TINA, seeking whom (Marshall 921); seeking [in order to find out], by thinking, meditating, reasoning; inquiring into (Thayer 272); seeking someone (Lenski 225); trying [to devour you] (Williams).
[ 54 ]KATAPIEIN, to devour (Marshall 921; Williams); literally, swallow down (Vincent 1.670); [from KATA down, intensive, PINOO to drink], of Satan's activities against believers (Vine 299); to devour (Thayer 335); to swallow (Lenski 225).
[ 55 ]HOO ANTISTEETE, whom oppose (Marshall 921); withstand is the more accurate rendering; as the verb means rather to be firm against onset than to strive against it. With in withstand is the Saxon wid, against (Vincent 1.670); set against [ANTI against, HISTEEMI to cause to stand], used in middle [or passive] voice and in the intransitive second aorist and perfect active, signifying to withstand, oppose, resist (Vine 958); resist him (Williams); whom stand against (Lenski 226).
[ 56 ]STEREOI, firm (Marshall 921); conveys the sense of compactness, compact solidity, and is appropriate, since a number of individuals are addressed and exhorted to withstand the onset of Satan as one compacted body. . . implies solidity in the very mass and body of the thing itself; steadfastness, mere holding of place. A rock is STEREOS firm, solid; but a flexible weed with its tough roots resisting all efforts to pull it up, may be steadfast (Vincent 1.670); firm, solid, hard, stiff (Vine 433, 1086); and be strong (Williams); firm (Lenski 226).
[ 57 ]TEE PISTEI, in the faith (Marshall 921); in faith (Williams); as regards the faith (Lenski 226).
[ 58 ]Compare Guy N. Woods 130.
[ 59 ]EIDOTES, knowing (Marshall 921; Lenski 226); because you know (Williams).
[ 60 ]TA AUTA TOON PATHEEMATOON . . . EPITELEISTHAI, the same things of the sufferings to be accomplished (Marshall 921); EPITELEISTHAI is the present passive infinitive of EPISTELEOO (Han 422); sufferings . . . literally, the same things of sufferings, emphasizing the idea of identity; are being accomplished. The present infinitive denotes something in process of accomplishment (Vincent 1.670); sufferings; [EPI up, intensive, TELEOO to finish, to bring to an end], the fuller meaning is accomplished perfectly (Vine 14, 1104); the same kinds of sufferings are being executed (Lenski 226); the same sort of sufferings is experiencing (Williams).
[ 61 ]HUMOON ADELPHOTEETI, of you brotherhood (Marshall 921); literally, brotherhood (Vincent 1.671); primarily, a brotherly relation, and so, the community possessed of this relation, a brotherhood (Vine 147); brotherhood (ASV footnote); your brotherhood; upon your brotherhood (Lenski 226); your brotherhood [composed of Christian Jews scattered all over the world] (Williams).
[ 62 ]TEE EN TOO KOSMOO, in the in the world (Marshall 921); primarily order, arrangement, ornament, adornment (Vine 1245); the ungodly multitude; the whole mass of men alienated from God, and therefore hostile to the cause of Christ (Thayer 357); in the world (Lenski 226); all over the world (Williams).
[ 63 ]Tacitus, Annals 15.44 from Zondervan 581.
[ 64 ]HO DE THEOS PASEES CHARITOS, the Now God of all grace (Marshall 921); moreover, the God of all grace (Lenski 227); and God, the giver of every spiritual blessing (Williams).
[ 65 ]Jehovah-tsebaoth-- This name, translated "The-LORD-of-hosts," was used in the days of David and the prophets, witnessing to God the Savior who is surrounded by His hosts of heavenly power (1 Sam. 1:3). (from Nelson's Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Copyright (C) 1986, Thomas Nelson Publishers).
[ 66 ]HO KALESAS HUMAS, the [one] having called you (Marshall 921); aorist tense, the true reading is HUMAS you, instead of us. . . who called you (Vincent 1.671); who has called you (Williams); the One who called you (Lenski 227).
[ 67 ]EIS TEEN AIOONION AUTOU DOXAN, to the eternal glory of him (Marshall 921); without end, never to cease, everlasting (Thayer 20); unto his eternal glory (Lenski 227); to His eternal glory (Williams).
[ 68 ]EN CHRISTOO or EN CHRISTOO 'IESOU, in Christ (Marshall 921); the best texts omit Jesus. . . in Christ, denoting the sphere or element in which the calling and its results take place (Vincent 1.671); through your union with Christ (Williams); in connection with Christ (Lenski 227).
[ 69 ]PATHONTAS, having suffered (Marshall 921; Lenski 227); suffered, of human suffering, of followers of Christ (Vine 1103); have suffered (Williams).
[ 70 ]OLIGON, [you] a little (Marshall 921); more literally, a little while (Vincent 1.671); little, few [the opposite of POLUS much] (Vine 677); a little while (Lenski 227; Williams).
[ 71 ]AUTOS KATARTISEI, [him]self will adjust (Marshall 921); future tense, mend, repair, used of fishermen repairing their nets (Woods 132); the KJV overlooks the AUTOS himself, which is very significant as indicating God's personal interest and energy in the work of confirming his children. Shall perfect. Revised reads restore, in margin. The root of this word appears in AROO or ARARISKOO to fit or join together. So ARTHRON means a joint. The radical notion of the verb is, therefore, adjustment--the putting of all the parts into right relation and connection (Vincent 1.671); will Himself make you perfect (Williams); will himself equip (Lenski 227).
[ 72 ]Compare Vincent 1.671.
[ 73 ]STEERIXEI, confirm (Marshall 921); third person future, active indicative of STEERIZOO (Han 422); future tense, make fast, support that which totters (Woods 132); akin at the root to STEREOS steadfast (verse 9), and is the very word used by Christ in his exhortation to Peter, "strengthen thy brethren" [Lu 22:32]. Possibly there is a reminiscence of this in Peter's use of the word here (Vincent 1.672); firm (Lenski 227; Williams).
[ 74 ]STHENOOSEI, strengthen (Marshall 922); third person singular, future active indicative of STHENOOO (Han 422); future tense, impart strength (Woods 132); make strong, strengthen (Thayer 574); and strong (Williams); strengthen [you] (Lenski 227).
[ 75 ]THEMELIOOSEI, found (Marshall 922); [from THEMELIOS a foundation]. The radical notion of the word is, therefore, to ground securely (Vincent 1.672); first aorist optative third person singular, make stable, establish (Thayer 287).
[ 76 ]AUTOO TO KRATOS, to him [is] the might (Marshall 922); dominion, in the doxologies (Thayer 359); to Him be dominion (Williams); to him the might (Lenski 227).
[ 77 ]EIS TOUS AIOONAS TOON AIOONOON, unto the ages of the ages (Marshall 921); for the eons of the eons! (Lenski 227); forever (Williams).
[ 78 ]AMEEN, amen (Marshall 922; Lenski 227; Williams); so be it, be it so.
[ 79 ]DIA SILOUANOU, through Silvanus (Marshall 922); by Silvanus (Williams); by means of Silvanus (Lenski 229).
[ 80 ]HUMIN TOU PISTOU ADELPHOU, to you the faithful brother (Marshall 922); the faithful brother, designating him as one well-known for his fidelity (Vincent 1.672); our faithful brother (Williams); the faithful brother (Lenski 229).
[ 81 ]HOOS LOGIZOMAI, as I reckon (Marshall 922; Lenski 229); the verb denotes a settled persuasion or assurance (Vincent 1.672); suppose, deem, judge (Thayer 379); as I regard him (Williams).
[ 82 ]EGRAPHA, I wrote (Marshall 922); literally, I wrote [an example of what is known as the epistolary aorist. The writer regards the time of writing as his correspondent will do when he shall have received the letter. We say in a letter, I write. . . . Peter [refers] . . . to the present epistle (Vincent 1.673); I have written (Williams); have I written (Lenski 229).
[ 83 ]DI' OLIGOON, by a few [words] (Marshall 922); literally through few [words] (Vincent 1.673); literally means "by few." In 1 Peter 5:12 it signifies by means of few words, "briefly" (Vine 142); this short letter (Williams); in brevity (Lenski 229).
[ 84 ]PARAKALOON, exhorting (Marshall 922); primarily, call to a person [PARA to the side, KALEOO to call] (Vine 390); admonish, exhort (Thayer 482); urging (Lenski 229); to encourage you (Williams).
[ 85 ]KAI EPIMARTUROON, and witnessing (Marshall 922); bearing witness to [a strengthened form of MARTUREOO bear witness, witness], testifying (Vine 1132); bearing witness to, establishing by testimony (Thayer 240); and to testify (Williams) and testifying (Lenski 229).
[ 86 ]TAUTEEN EINAI ALEETHEE CHARIN TOU THEOU, this to be [the] true grace of God (Marshall 922); primarily, unconcealed, manifest [A negative, LEETHOO to forget,=LANTHANOO to escape notice], of things true, conforming to reality; CHARIN, in another objective sense, the effect of grace, the spiritual state of those who have experienced its exercise . . . a state of grace; ALEETHEES denotes the reality of the thing (Vine 500, 1170, 1171); grace which can be trusted (Thayer 27); that this is God's genuine grace (Lenski 229); that this is the true, unmerited favor of God (Williams).
[ 87 ]EIS HEEN STEETE, in which ye stand (Marshall 922; Lenski 922); [some texts have] HESTEEKATE, the best texts read STEETE, imperative. . . stand ye fast therein. Literally, "into which stand," the preposition with the verb having the pregnant force of entering into and standing fast in (Vincent 1.673); stand firm in it (Williams).
[ 88 ]Personal letter from Malcom Parsley of Seoul, Korea, April 6, 1995.
[ 89 ]HEE EN BABULOONI, the in Babylon (Marshall 922); the word is not in the Greek but is supplied with the feminine definite article HE. There is, however, a difference of opinion as to the meaning of this feminine article. Some suppose a reference to Peter's own wife; others, to some prominent Christian woman in the church (Vincent 1.673); the words under HEE in their feminine forms are used for this pronoun (Vine 1031); of the city itself (Thayer 92); in late Judaism Rome began to take on the name and many of the characteristics of Babylon as a world-power hostile to God, denounced by the prophets . . . others, thinks of the Babylon in Egypt . . . the Babylon in Mesopotamia is also suggested by some,, but at the time of Diodorus Siculus, that is, 1 BC, it was almost entirely uninhabited (Arndt 129); your sister-church [Greek has only feminine article which might mean, the lady or the church (implied)]in Babylon (Williams); the one in Babylon (Lenski 231).
[ 90 ]"Church" was also supplied in the Syriac, Vulgate and other ancient versions (Macknight 626).
[ 91 ]SUNEKLEKTEE, co-chosen [church?] (Marshall 922); means "elect together with" (Vine 352); chosen together with someone understood, only feminine . . . no individual lady is meant, least of all Peter's wife, but rather a congregation with whom Peter is staying (Arndt 787); chosen along with you (Williams); the one elect with you (Lenski 231).
[ 92 ]'ASPAZETAI HUMAS, greets you (Marshall 922); the verb is used as a technical term for conveying greetings at the close of a letter, often by an amanuensis (Vine 507); there salutes you (Lenski 231); wish to be remembered to you (Williams).
[ 93 ]KAI HO HUIOS MOU, and the son of me (Marshall 922); probably in a spiritual sense, though some, as Bengel, think that Peter's own son is referred to (Vincent 1.674); and my son (Williams)(; also my son (Lenski 231).
[ 94 ]MARKOS, Mark (Marshall 922; Lenski; Williams); John Mark, the author of the gospel (Vincent 1.674).
[ 95 ]ASPASASTHE ALLEELOUS, greet ye one another (Marshall 922); the verb is used as a technical term for conveying greetings at the close of a letter, often by an amanuensis (Vine 507); greet one another (Williams); salute one another (Lenski 232).
[ 96 ]EN PHILEEMATI AGAPEES, with a kiss of love (Marshall 922; Lenski 232; Williams); a kiss, a token of Christian brotherhood, whether by way of welcome or farewell, "a kiss of love" (Vine 628).
[ 97 ]Woods, Questions 2.181.
[ 98 ]EIREENEE HUMIN PASIN, peace to you all (Marshall 922; Lenski 233); harmonious relationships (Vine 839); peace to all of you (Williams).
[ 99 ]TOIS EN CHRISTOO, the ones in Christ (Marshall 922); indicates a very close relation . . . be or abide in Christ (Arndt 259); that [are] in connection with Christ (Lenski 233); that are in union with Christ (Williams).
[ 100 ]Kurt Aland, Editors, The Greek New Testament, United Bible Societies, third edition, published in Stuttgart, printed in West Germany, 1975.
Copyright ©2003, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington, U.S.A.
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method. To First Peter Chapter Four
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