- Practicing righteousness (1Jo 2:29).
- Having hope and becoming pure like Christ (1Jo 3:1-3).
- Sin utterly out of place with sonship (1Jo 3:4-10).
In this chapter[ 1 ] John points out that Christians are sons of God. As such, they should purify themselves and not practice sin. Their righteousness involves loving the brethren and having a heart of compassion. The Holy Spirit gives assurance that faithful Christians abide in Christ.
TWO CLASSES OF PEOPLEOF GOD:
- Children of God (1Jo 3:1).
- Have hope (1Jo 3:3).
- Remain in Christ (1Jo 3:6).
- Practice righteousness (1Jo 3:7).
- Do not practice sin (1Jo 3:9).
- Love the brethren (1Jo 3:11, 14).
NOT OF GOD [OF THE DEVIL]:
- Practice sin [lawlessness] (1Jo 3:4).
- Do not practice righteousness (1Jo 3:10).
- Do not love brothers (1Jo 3:10).
- Hate brothers (1Jo 3:12, 15).
- Murderers (1Jo 3:15).
GOD'S LOVE SHOWN BY RECOGNIZING HIS CHILDREN
3:1 See what manner of love the Father has extended to us, that we should be called children of God, and we are! For this reason the world does not know us, because it did not know Him.
HOW GREAT, WHAT MANNER!
[A WORD STUDY]
- POTAPOS what manner of man is this, that even the winds and the sea obey Him? (Mt 8:27).
- Teacher, behold, POTAPOI what manner of stones and POTAPOI what manner of buildings! (Mk 13:1).
- Cast in her mind POTAPOS what manner of salutation this might be (Lu 1:29).
- POTAPOUS what manner of persons ought you to be in all holy living and godliness (2Pe 3:11).
- See POTAPEEN what manner of love the Father has extended to us! (1Jo 3:1).
See [behold].[ 2 ] The Holy Spirit had just inspired John to write about the new birth. "Everyone also who is practicing righteousness has been born of Him" (1Jo 2:29). He now calls upon every Christian to stop and consider the remarkable significance of that. Dear reader, please do not calmly pass on until you marvel about this wonderful concept--born of Him! "See what manner of love!"
What manner [what].[ 3 ] The kind of love the Father has for mankind is great beyond comprehension. Its eminence is greater than the highest mountain. Its quality is purer than the driven snow. Yet, beyond this, there is a more exalted blessing in store for God's children (see verse 2; chart HOW GREAT, WHAT MANNER!).
Of love [love].[ 4 ] God, who is love and the source of love, has lavished a love "so amazing"[ 5 ] upon us.
The Father has extended to us [hath bestowed upon us, has given us, to us].[ 6 ] The love of God is without parallel (see Joh 15:13; Ro 5:7, 8; Eph 3:17-19). It endures forever. It is more precious than diamonds and gold but it is freely bestowed.
That.[ 7 ] Here we are allowed to glimpse something of the original, far-reaching divinely-intended magnitude of God's love (compare Eph 5:2; 1Jo 3:16). The intent of His love is seen in that He calls us His children. The privilege of becoming His children is a provision resulting from His love.
We should be called.[ 8 ] Bask for an additional moment in the kindness and love of God that makes possible the status of being called His child!
Children of God [the sons, the children, of God].[ 9 ] Believers have the right to become children of God (Joh 1:12). Faith leads them to be born again of the water and the Spirit (Joh 3:3, 5).[ 10 ] Children of the God (who is love) walk in love (Eph 5:2; 1Jo 4:8). Children of God (who is light) walk in the light (Eph 5:8; 1Jo 1:5, 7). His Sons walk even as His Son Jesus walked (1Jo 2:6).
And we are! [and such, and so, we are].[ 11 ] Apparently, this gracious parenthetical thought is John's. It is one of the very few phrases omitted by the KJV and NKJV. Nonetheless, it has been included in several modern versions because it appears in earlier Greek texts.[ 12 ] When God calls people His children, that is exactly what they are. Notice the usage of "called" by Christ. "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God" (Mt 5:9; see notes on Ro 4:17; 1Co 1:28). The peacemakers really are sons of God in view of the fact that they have made peace with Him.
THE WORLD DOES NOT KNOW US
For this reason the world does not know us [for this cause, therefore, the reason why, the world knoweth, knows, us not, does not know us].[ 13 ] The world is expected to persecute followers of Christ. A reason children of God are not approvingly recognized by the world is given in the next phrase. The world does not know God. Neither does it know Christ. When Christ, the apostles and other Christians were oppressed, it did not prove they were of God. Neither does persecution or the lack of it establish that one is not of God.
THE WORLD DID NOT KNOW GOD
Because it did not know Him [because it knew him not, is that it did not know him].[ 14 ] When Christ was in the world, it did not know Him (Joh 1:10). In a conversation with Jews who believed on Him, Jesus said, "You have not known Him" (Joh 8:55). Even the disciples had a problem with knowing God. Jesus said to them, "If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also; from henceforth you know Him and have seen Him. . . . He who has seen Me has seen the Father" (Joh 14:7, 9). Persecution resulted from lack of knowledge. "And these things they will do, because they have not known the Father, nor Me" (Joh 16:3). Those "of the world" crucified Jesus just as He predicted.
A person living a worldly, selfish life, is called a "natural man." Until he is willing to make a change, he finds it difficult or impossible to understand certain spiritual truths. "Now the natural man receives not the things of the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot know them, because they are spiritually judged" (1Co 2:14).
"BECOME" WHAT YOU ARE -- CHILDREN OF GOD!
3:2 Beloved, now we are God's children, and what we shall be, is not yet revealed. We do know that when He is revealed, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is.
Beloved.[ 15 ]
Now we are God's children [now are we children of God, the sons of God, we are God's children now].[ 16 ] John underscores the present state of those "begotten" or "born" of Him. They are now His children (see 1Jo 2:29). Their past has been forgiven. Their future is not yet fully revealed.
And what we shall be [what we shall be].[ 17 ] There are some unanswered questions about the next life. All details have not been revealed but of one thing there is no doubt. Christians are God's children now. Their future life will be even more spectacular.
We do know that [we know that, but we know that].[ 18 ]
Is not yet revealed [it is not yet made manifest, it doth, does, not yet appear, has not yet been manifested].[ 19 ]
WHEN CHRIST APPEARS
When He is revealed [if he shall be manifested, when he appears, shall appear, if it is manifested].[ 20 ] One day Christians shall witness the Lord's final coming. They shall then see Him "face to face." At that time, they shall gain supplementary knowledge about the future state.
There is a secondary lesson here. Christians, in the here and now, have access to the revelation of Jesus Christ through the pages of the NT. Study and contemplation will change their character into the likeness of Christ's. The reader may recall the story of The Great Stone Face. A legend said that a great leader would some day arrive who would resemble the great stone face carved on a mountain. A little boy gazed upon the face day by day as he grew up. When he became an adult, his own countenance resembled the stone face and he became the leader of the people.
WE SHALL BE LIKE HIM
- Reflection of the glory of God (Ro 8:29; 2Co 3:18).
- Physical change to a resurrected body (1Co 15:42).
- Spiritual change to complete purity (Heb 12:23).
- No sin (1Jo 3:5).
- Righteousness (1Jo 3:7).
We shall be like Him.[ 21 ] In heaven, Christians will still be children of God but will be changed to become like Jesus.
For we shall see Him.[ 22 ] Here is another instance where one might anticipate John saying the converse (see note on 1Jo 2:29). What might be expected is something like, "If we become like Him, we may get to see Him" (compare Mt 5:8; 1Jo 3:14; 4:17). Actually, he said, "We shall be like Him for we shall see Him as He is." The subtle suggestion is that the merit of salvation is His, not man's.
THE HOPE OF SEEING GOD
- For the Lord is righteous; He loves righteousness; the upright will behold His face (Ps 11:7).
- Thou wilt show me the path of life; in Thy presence is fullness of joy; in Thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore (Ps 16:11).
- As for me, I shall behold Thy face in righteousness; I will be satisfied when I awake with beholding Thy form (Ps 17:15).
- My soul thirsts for God, for the living God; when shall I come and appear before God? (Ps 42:2).
As He is [even as he is].[ 23 ]
INCENTIVE FOR PURE LIVING
3:3 And everyone who has this hope based on Him purifies himself as He is pure.
And every one who has [and every one that hath, who, has].[ 24 ] The present tense of the Greek participle translated "has" indicates that Christians continue to have hope.
RIGHTEOUS LIVING IS VITAL
- Everyone who keeps on sinning, has neither seen Him nor known Him (1Jo 3:6).
- Anyone who has been born of God does not keep on practicing sin (1Jo 3:9).
- By this the children of God are made known, and the children of the devil. Anyone who does not practice righteousness is not of God, also someone who does not love his brother (1Jo 3:10).
- We know that anyone having been born of God does not continue sinning (1Jo 5:18).
This hope [thus hopes].[ 25 ] Elsewhere, Paul wrote about the promise of the coming of "the Root of Jesse." That promise conveys an enduring hope to Gentiles (and Jews) who obey the gospel of Christ (Ro 15:12). The Greek present tense indicates the hope continues. Hope is a blessing that abides with Christians (see also 1Co 13:13). John's point is that Christians are children of God now and continue to have a hope for a glorious future. It does not matter to them that their eternal future has not been fully disclosed. Their hope motivates them to live as Christ lived. The stimulating power of hope is seen in the work they do. Because of hope they "labor and strive" (1Ti 4:10).
Based on Him [set on him, in him].[ 26 ] Since early NT manuscripts were hand printed in all capital letters, one could not determine by capitalization whether "him" refers to the person with hope or to Christ Himself. It is no wonder that translators differ as to whether the hope is "in him," that is, in the heart of the Christian or "in Him," Christ. From a consideration of a parallel passage in 1 Timothy 4:10, my view is that John intended to convey that the hope of Christians rests in or on Christ. Their hope is "in Him."
- Let us draw near with a true heart in fullness of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and having our body washed with pure water (Heb 10:22).
- Cleanse your hands, you sinners; and purify your hearts, you double-minded (Jas 4:8).
- Seeing you have purified your souls in your obedience to the truth (1Pe 1:22).
- He who says he remains in Him ought himself to walk as He walked (1Jo 2:6).
- And everyone who has this hope based on Him purifies himself as He is pure (1Jo 3:3).
SEVEN REASONS TO BE PURE
- Because we are children of God (1Jo 3:1).
- Because of our hope (1Jo 3:3).
- Because Christ was revealed to take away our sins (1Jo 3:5).
- Because we remain in Him who is sinless (1Jo 3:6).
- Because the one practicing sin is of the devil (1Jo 3:8).
- Because anyone who has been born of God does not keep on practicing sin (1Jo 3:9).
- Because anyone who does not practice righteousness is not of God (1Jo 3:10).
Purifies himself [purifieth himself].[ 27 ] Prior to the receiving the Ten Commandments, the Israelites had to purify themselves in order to come into the presence of the Lord. "And the Lord said to Moses, Go to the people and sanctify them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments, and be ready against the third day, for the third day the Lord will come down in the sight of all the people on Mount Sinai" (Ex 19:10). The Jewish practice of consecration and washing was continued during the personal ministry of Christ. "Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand, and many went up to Jerusalem out of the country before the Passover, to purify themselves" (Joh 11:55).
In the church age, the impure cannot come into the presence of the Lord. Just as it is impossible to walk in the light while living in darkness, it is essential for a believer[ 28 ] to purify himself in order to please Him. Some specifics on this are: "He who does not love, remains in death" (1Jo 3:14). "No murderer has eternal life abiding in him" (1Jo 3:15). "Anyone going beyond and not remaining in the teaching of Christ, does not have God (2Jo 9). The teaching of Christ includes such things as His death, burial and resurrection. It embraces repentance, confession of one's faith in Christ, baptism for the remission of sins and living faithfully.
There are two poor responses to John's teaching. One is to give up doing any better because it seems hopeless. The other is to compromise with evil. Neither response gives the matter of purity the emphasis it deserves (see chart SEVEN REASONS TO BE PURE).
As He [even as he].[ 29 ]
Is pure.[ 30 ] Christ "knew no sin" (2Co 5:21). He was "without sin" (Heb 4:15). He is pure (1Jo 3:3; see note on 3:5). Christians are to think on "whatever is pure" (Php 4:8). To be pure, they must also avoid partaking of the sins of others. One way they could do this was by appointing unworthy persons to the service of God. It was in reference to this that Paul told Timothy, "Keep yourself pure" (1Ti 5:22). An erring Christian purifies himself by repentance, confession of sin and prayer (Ac 8:22; Jas 5:16; 1Jo 1:9). He keeps himself pure by living righteously and by obtaining forgiveness when he sins.
To summarize the previous section, we have learned that Christians should abide in Christ (1Jo 3:28) and, since they have been born again, practice righteousness (1Jo 3:29). We have looked again at the great love of God who calls them His children and have been reassured of the hope they have to see Christ one day in heaven.
THOSE WHO HAVE HOPE
- Remain in Christ (1Jo 2:28).
- Practice righteousness (1Jo 2:29).
- Purify selves (1Jo 3:3).
FOUR REASONS NOT TO SIN
- Because Christ is pure (1Jo 3:3).
- Because everyone who remains in Him does not keep on sinning (1Jo 3:6).
- Because everyone who keeps on sinning, has neither seen Him nor known Him (1Jo 3:6).
- Because Christ was revealed to destroy the works of the devil (1Jo 3:8).
THE PRACTICING SINNER
- Every one practicing sin, is also practicing lawlessness (1Jo 3:4).
- The one practicing sin is of the devil (1Jo 3:8).
- Anyone who does not practice righteousness is not of God (1Jo 3:10).
3:4 Everyone practicing sin, is also practicing lawlessness. Sin is lawlessness.
Everyone practicing sin [every one that doeth sin, every one who commits sin, that practices sin, whosoever committeth sin].[ 31 ] Although John elsewhere teaches the complete and absolute avoidance of sinful acts, the present verse is not speaking of that. By "practicing sin" he alludes to sin as a continual and habitual activity.
Notice John's use of PAS HO every one again (compare 1Jo 2:29; 3:3, 6, 9; 3:6, 10).[ 32 ] This points up the universality of his teaching about sin. Nobody, even a Gnostic, is exempt from obeying inspired commands. Those who continually violate or disregard God's will are practicing sinners and, according to Scripture, are lost.
- Because of the law of God (1Jo 3:4).
- Because of Christ's character and mission (1Jo 3:5-7).
- Because sin is of the devil (1Jo 3:8).
- Because of the new birth (1Jo 3:9).
- Because children of the devil do not practice righteousness or love brothers (1Jo 3:10).
Compare Law 22
TEACHING ON SIN ELABORATED
- Practicing sin (1Jo 3:4,8).
- He was revealed so He might take away sins (1Jo 3:5).
- That He might destroy the works of the devil (1Jo 3:8).
- Everyone who remains in Him does not keep on sinning (1Jo 3:6).
- Anyone who has been born of God does not keep on practicing sin (1Jo 3:9).
Is also practicing lawlessness [doeth, practices also, is guilty of, lawlessness, transgresseth also the law].[ 33 ] In the OT, lawless men were those who had little or no respect for the Law of Moses. "To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them"[ 34 ] (Isa 8:20 KJV). Natural law is totally beyond the concern of some lawless people (Ro 2:14). Neither are they interested in God's law or man's. Some lawless people obstinately refuse to submit to "the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus" (Ro 8:2). They choose not to be "under the law to Christ" (1Co 9:21). Lawless people are criminals. A sinner, therefore, may properly be called a spiritual criminal. Unforgiven spiritual criminals will be lost in eternity. "And then I will profess to them, I never knew you; depart from Me, you who work iniquity" (Mt 7:23).
SIN IS LAWLESSNESS
Sin is lawlessness [and sin is lawlessness, for sin is the transgression of the law].[ 35 ] The Greek sentence has "the" before sin and another "the" before lawlessness. This makes it proper to say "Sin is lawlessness" or the converse, "Lawlessness is sin." No sin is so insignificant that it may be ignored.
- Whatever is not from faith is sin (Ro 14:23).
- To him therefore who knows to do good, and does it not, to him it is sin (Jas 4:17).
- Sin is lawlessness (1Jo 3:4).
- All unrighteousness is sin (1Jo 5:17).
- Transgression of "the words of God" (Joh 17:8).
- Darkness (1Jo 1:6).
- Transgression of God's commandments (1Jo 2:3).
- Transgression of "the word" (1Jo 2:7, 14).
- Hating a brother (1Jo 2:9; 3:15).
- Something that may be practiced (1Jo 3:4, 8).
- Lovelessness (1Jo 3:10).
IMPLICATIONS OF RIGHTEOUSNESS
- It is lawfulness (implied by 1Jo 3:4).
- Cooperates with Christ who takes away sins (implied by 1Jo 3:5).
- Enables one to know and abide in God (implied by 1Jo 3:5).
- The one who practices righteousness is righteous, just as He is righteous (1Jo 3:7).
- Is not of the devil (implied by 1Jo 3:8).
- One who is born of God practices righteousness (implied by 1Jo 3:9).
- He who practices righteousness is a child of God (implied by 1Jo 3:10).
THE SINLESS CHRIST'S OPPOSITION TO SIN
3:5 And you know that He was revealed so He might take away sins, and there is no sin in Him.
And you know [and ye know, you know].[ 36 ]
- But you have an anointment from the Holy One, and all of you know (1Jo 2:20).
- By this you know the Spirit of God. Every spirit which confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God (1Jo 4:2).
- By this we know that we abide in Him, and He in us, because He has given us a portion of His Spirit (1Jo 4:13).
- We know that we have the requests which we have asked of Him (1Jo 5:15).
- You know that our testimony is true (3Jo 12).
SOME THINGS CHRISTIANS KNOW
- I did not write to you because you do not know the truth, but because you know it (1Jo 2:21).
- And we have known and have believed the love which God has in us (1Jo 4:16).
- We know that anyone having been born of God does not continue sinning (1Jo 5:18).
ABIDING EFFECTS OF
- And this is the judgment, that the light is come into the world (Joh 3:19).
- I am come in My Father's name (Joh 5:43).
- I am come a light into the world (Joh 12:46).
- To this end I am come into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth (Joh 18:37).
- Every spirit which confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God (1Jo 4:2).
CHRIST MANIFESTED BY BEING SENT (A)
[Greek PEMPOO, an official sending]
- My food is to do the will of Him who sent Me (Joh 4:34).
- And the Father who sent Me, He has born witness of Me (Joh 5:37).
- For I am come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me (Joh 6:38).
- The Father who sent Me bears witness of Me (Joh 8:18).
- We must work the works of Him who sent Me (Joh 9:4).
- He who believes on Me believes not on Me, but on Him who sent Me (Joh 12:44).
- The Father who sent Me, He has given Me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak (Joh 12:49).
That He was revealed [that he was, has been manifested, appeared].[ 37 ] Christ came to the earth in order to take away sins. In this respect, He came to undo the devil's work. "This is why the Son of God appeared, that He might destroy the works of the devil" (1Jo 3:8). He came for the express purpose of being crucified for the sins of the world[ 38 ] (see chart ABIDING EFFECTS OF CHRIST'S MANIFESTATION; all references to Christ's coming in this chart are Greek perfect tenses). The reader may recall that the Greek perfect tense denotes the present state resultant upon a past action.[ 39 ]
CHRIST MANIFESTED BY BEING SENT (B)
[Greek APOSTELLOO, to send as an envoy, with a commission]
- For God sent not the Son into the world to judge the world; but that the world should be saved through Him (Joh 3:17).
- As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father (Joh 6:57).
- I know Him; because I am from Him, and He sent Me" (Joh 7:29).
- Do you say of Him, whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, "You blaspheme; " because I said, I am the Son of God? (Joh 10:36).
- As Thou didst sent Me into the world, even so sent I them into the world (Joh 17:18).
- This is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us and sent His Son to be the expiation for our sins (1Jo 4:10).
HEAVEN'S OPPOSITION TO SIN SHOWN BY JESUS' COMING
So He might take away [to take away, that he might take away].[ 40 ] John the Baptist announced the purpose of Christ's coming into the world as he looked upon Jesus. He said, "Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!" (Joh 1:29; compare Mt 1:21). This implies that Jesus, the sacrificial Lamb of God, takes away sin. He is the expiation or propitiation for the sins of the whole world (1Jo 2:2). God sent Him for this very purpose (1Jo 4:10). John makes a strong appeal not to sin. He shows how incongruous it is for a Christian to practice what Jesus came to do away with.
CHRIST MANIFESTED BY HIS COMING
- He came to His own, and those who were His own received Him not (Joh 1:11).
- If God were your Father, you would love Me; for I came forth and am come from God, for neither have I come of Myself, but He sent Me (Joh 8:42).
- For the Father Himself loves you, because you have loved Me, and have believed that I came forth from the Father (Joh 16:27).
- I came out from the Father and am come into the world (Joh 16:28).
- And knew of a truth that I came forth from Thee, and they believed that Thou didst send Me (Joh 17:8).
- He is the one who came by water and blood, Jesus Christ, not with the water only, but in the water and in the blood (1Jo 5:6).
FORM OF CHRIST'S MANIFESTATION
- And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us (and we beheld His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth (Joh 1:14).
- But emptied Himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men; and being found in fashion as a man (Php 2:7, 8).
- Every spirit which confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God (1Jo 4:2).
- For many deceivers have gone out into the world, they who do not confess the coming of Jesus Christ in the flesh (2Jo 7).
CHRIST MANIFESTED TO MEN
- And the life was revealed, and we have seen and testify and proclaim to you the eternal life which was with the Father and was revealed to us (1Jo 1:2).
- And I knew Him not, but that He should be made manifest to Israel, for this cause came I baptizing in water (Joh 1:31).
- After these things Jesus manifested Himself again to the disciples at the Sea of Tiberias; and He manifested Himself in this way (Joh 21:1).
- This is now the third time that Jesus was manifested to the disciples, after that He was risen from the dead (Joh 21:14).
Sins [our sins].[ 41 ] The plural alludes to any and all specific sins committed in the past that remain unforgiven.
And there is no sin in Him [and in him is no sin, and in him sin is not].[ 42 ] There was "no unrighteousness" in Jesus (Joh 7:18). He "did no sin, neither was guile found in His mouth" (1Pe 2:22). He is the Righteous One (1Jo 2:1; see note on 3:3). "There is (Greek present continuous tense) no sin In Him." Not only was He sinless during His earthly ministry but He continues to be sinless in His heavenly administration.
EVERYONE WHO REMAINS IN CHRIST
DOES NOT KEEP ON SINNING
- If what you heard from the beginning remains in you, you also will remain in the Son and in the Father (1Jo 2:24).
- Anyone who has been born of God does not keep on practicing sin, because His seed abides in him, and he is not able to keep on sinning, because he has been born of God (1Jo 3:9).
- We know that anyone having been born of God does not continue sinning, but He who was born of God watches over him, and the evil one does not have a hold on him (1Jo 5:1).
THE PRACTICING CHRISTIAN
- Everyone who remains in Him does not keep on sinning (1Jo 3:6).
- The one practicing righteousness is righteous (1Jo 3:7).
- Anyone who has been born of God does not keep on practicing sin (1Jo 3:9).
NO ONE WHO ABIDES IN CHRIST SINS
3:6 Everyone who remains in Him does not keep on sinning. Everyone who keeps on sinning, has neither seen Him nor known Him.
ABIDING IN CHRIST
Everyone who remains in Him does not keep on sinning [whosoever abideth in him sinneth not, no one who abides in him sins, whoever abides in him, does not sin].[ 43 ] In discussing the vine and the branches with the apostles, Jesus said, "Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine, so neither can you, except you abide in Me" (Joh 15:4). He continued, "If you keep My commandments, you shall abide in My love; even as I have kept My Father's commandments, and abide in His love" (Joh 15:10). John equated abiding in Christ with the Christian walk and keeping the commandments (1Jo 3:24). "He who says he remains in Him ought himself also to walk as He walked" (1Jo 2:6).
WHAT ABIDES "IN YOU"
- Young men . . . the word of God abides in you (1Jo 2:14).
- The anointment which you received from Him remains in you (1Jo 2:27).
- And by this we know that He remains in us, by the Spirit whom He gave us (1Jo 3:24).
- If we love one another, God abides in us, and His love is perfected in us (1Jo 4:12).
REMAINING IN THE LORD
- He who says he remains in Him ought himself also to walk as He walked (1Jo 2:6).
- He who loves his brother remains in the light (1Jo 2:10).
- Everyone who remains in Him does not keep on sinning (1Jo 3:6).
- By this we know that we remain in Him, and He in us, because He has given us a portion of His Spirit (1Jo 4:13).
- He who abides in love. abides in God, and God abides in him (1Jo 4:16).
John includes the confession of faith in Christ as essential (see 1Jo 4:15). Of one thing we may be sure. It is ideal that a Christian not commit even one sin (see note on 1Jo 2:1). Unhappily, this is not always expected (see notes on 1Jo 1:8, 10). No one who meets the conditions of abiding in Christ will make a practice of sinning (see charts EVERYONE WHO REMAINS IN HIM DOES NOT KEEP ON SINNING; REMAINING IN THE LORD). "There is good pastoral advice here. The best counsel for a person who is faced with temptation to sin may well not be, `Don't do it,' which directs the person's mind toward the temptation itself, but rather, `Live in Christ,' which turns the person's attention positively toward his Savior and diverts it from the temptation."[ 44 ]
Ezekiel, when treating the subject of the restoration of the Jews from captivity, gave a lesson for us. He quoted God as saying, "And I will put My Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordinances, and do them. And you shall dwell in the land that I gave to your fathers; and you shall be My people and I will be your God. And I will save you from all your uncleanness" (Eze 36:27-29). Christians need to be careful in their walk and observe God's statutes. Moreover, they should often appeal to Him for forgiveness of sins.
Some Gnostic false teachers disregarded moral restraints entirely. John strongly counters that. No who has been born or God and who abides in Christ can hold such a view. "No one who abides in Him sins!" Does this mean that godly people can never engage in gross and deliberate sins? I think they can. Consider David, the prodigal son, the fornicator at Corinth and even the apostle Peter. Keep in mind that in this verse (as in verses 8, 9 and 5:18), "sins" is present continuous tense in Greek. It refers to the practice of sin, not to isolated acts.[ 45 ]
Everyone who keeps on sinning [whosoever sinneth, no one who sins, whoever sins].[ 46 ] Again, the Greek continuous present tense suggests a practice of sinning. A faithful Christian (one who abides in Christ) does not make sinning a practice. John pictures what ought to be--the ideal situation. He does not mean that a saved person may never experience a brief lapse into sin. He does not imply that a Christian may never think an impure thought nor leave undone something he should do (see note on Jas 4:17; 1Jo 1:8, 10). What he does mean is that sin is inconsistent with the Christian life. When a Christian does wrong, he repents, confesses the sin and prays (Ac 8:22; Jas 5:16; 1Jo 1:9). As a forgiven Christian, he then lives closer to the truth and to the example of Christ. In this way, he continues the process of purifying himself until the end of his earthly life (see 1Jo 3:3).[ 47 ]
Has neither seen Him nor known Him [hath not, has not, seen him, neither knoweth, known, him, has either seen him or known him].[ 48 ] "Him" is Christ. John had literally seen and handled Him (1Jo 1:1, 2) but he is not speaking of that. "Seen Him" has to do with becoming "of" Christ, becoming a Christian. In a similar way, one who has seen God is "of" God (see note on 3Jo 11). The Greek perfect tense of "seen Him" denotes the present state of salvation resultant upon an action in the past. Both seeing Him and knowing Him imply being saved (see note on 1Jo 2:4; see chart SEEING CHRIST). In other words, seeing Him is equivalent to obeying the gospel and remaining faithful. The present verse describes the negative--one who has not seen the Savior, that is, one who has never obeyed the gospel and who continues in sin.[ 49 ]
- For this is the will of My Father, that everyone who beholds the Son, and believes on Him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day (Joh 6:40).
- What then if you should behold the Son of Man ascending where He was before? (Joh 6:62).
- And he who beholds Me beholds Him who sent Me (Joh 12:45).
- If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also; from henceforth you know Him, and have seen Him (Joh 14:7).
- Yet a little while, and the world beholds Me no more; but you behold Me; because I live, you shall live also (Joh 14:19).
- Of righteousness, because I go to the Father, and you behold Me no more (Joh 16:10).
- A little while, and you behold Me no more; and again a little while, and you shall see Me (Joh 16:16).
- And those who are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament, and those who turn many to righteousness, as the stars for ever and ever (Da 12:3).
- Then shall the righteous answer Him, saying, "Lord, when did we see You hungry, and feed You, or thirsty, and give You drink?" (Mt 25:37).
- The righteous into eternal life (Mt 25:46).
- Spirits of just men made perfect (Heb 12:23).
- For the eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and His ears to their supplication (1Pe 3:12).
- And if the righteous is scarcely saved (1Pe 4:18).
- He who is righteous, let him do righteousness still (Re 22:11).
THE ONE WHO PRACTICES SIN IS OF THE DEVIL
3:7, 8 Little children, let no one deceive you. The one practicing righteousness is righteous, as He is righteous. 8 The one practicing sin is of the devil, for the devil has been sinning from the beginning. This is why the Son of God was revealed, that He might destroy the works of the devil.
Little children [my children, little children][ 50 ] (see notes on Joh 1:12; 1Jo 1:12; 1Jo 2:1; chart LITTLE CHILDREN at 1Jo 2:1).
Let no one deceive you [let no man lead you astray, deceive you].[ 51 ] In chapter 1, John wrote of self-deceit: "If we say that we have no sin, we are deceiving ourselves, and the truth is not in us" (1Jo 1:8). He now refers to false teachers whose agenda is to deceive Christians (see note on 2Jo 7).
The one practicing righteousness [he that doeth, practices, righteousness, he who does right].[ 52 ] In order to be righteous, one must do more than affirm it. He must do more than claim church membership and profess religion. Faithful Christians practice righteousness. They continue to do right. They live a life of obedience to the God's commands (see Ps 119:172).
Is righteous.[ 53 ] He who continually lives like the devil and expects forgiveness all along the way is in for a disappointment. Continual cleansing is available for those who "walk in the light" (1Jo 1:7). Cleansing by the blood of Christ is effective only for those who practice righteousness but are not sinlessly perfect.
As He is righteous [even as he is righteous].[ 54 ] Christ is our example of righteousness (see charts JESUS CHRIST OUR GREAT EXAMPLE at 1Pe 2:21; JESUS CHRIST THE RIGHTEOUS at 1Jo 2:1; note on 1Jo 4:17).
The one practicing sin [he who commits sin, he that doeth sin, committeth sin, practices sin].[ 55 ] This has reference to a habitual life of sin, not a single lapse.
Is of the devil.[ 56 ] Jesus once said to some deceitful Jews, "You are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father it is your will to do" (Joh 8:44). People become children of Satan when they do his desires. John insisted that the devil's strength must be overcome. He said, "I have written to you, young men, because you are strong, and the word of God abides in you, and you have overcome the evil one" (1Jo 2:14). Yet, many do not exert the effort to accomplish this. This is understandable inasmuch as "The whole world lies in the power of the evil one" (1Jo 5:19).
For the devil has been sinning [sins, sinneth, has sinned].[ 57 ] The Greek present tense indicates the Devil continues to sin. He has done so from the beginning.
From the beginning [from the beginning].[ 58 ] Just what is the meaning of "beginning" in this context? Does it mean the devil's beginning or the beginning of sin in the garden of Eden? Pre-edenic sin of the devil is possible but is, in my opinion, conjectural. Could the phrase have a general meaning such as, "The devil has always been a sinner"?
This is why the Son of God [to this end was, for this purpose, the reason, the Son of God].[ 59 ] When the Son of God was born in Bethlehem, He had a purpose. That purpose was to destroy the works of the devil. Recall that the Gnostics denied this. They said Christ descended upon Jesus after His baptism.
Was revealed [was, has been, manifested, appeared].[ 60 ] Jesus foretold His own crucifixion, saying, "And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to Myself" (Joh 12:32). He had just agonized in prayer to God, "Father, glorify Thy name." There came a voice out of heaven, saying, "I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again" (Joh 12:28). Notice His words: "Now is the judgment of this world; now shall the prince of this world be cast out" (Joh 12:31).[ 61 ]
That He might destroy [was to destroy, that he might undo].[ 62 ] The Greek word for "destroy" literally means "to unloose" but, in the present context, is satisfactorily rendered "destroy." Christ came to demolish the devil's works.[ 63 ] John's point is not that Christ destroyed every attempt of Satan to do wrong but that his "united front" was broken up. He no longer has complete victory over mankind because, through Christ, actual forgiveness of sins is now possible. Through Christ, heaven has become the certain hope for many. "But if we walk in the light as He is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son, cleanses us from all sin" (1Jo 1:7; compare 1Jo 3:2, 3).
The works of the devil.[ 64 ] The works of Satan include his lies, other sins, enslavement, sickness and death.
TRAITS OF ONE BORN OF GOD
- Practices righteousness (1Jo 2:29).
- Does not practice sin (1Jo 3:9).
- Loves (1Jo 4:7).
- Believes that Jesus is the Christ (1Jo 5:1).
- Overcomes the world (1Jo 5:4).
NO ONE BORN OF GOD PRACTICES SIN
3:9 Anyone who has been born of God does not keep on practicing sin, because His seed abides in him, and he is not able to keep on sinning, because he has been born of God.
Anyone who has been born of God [whosoever is, whoever has been, begotten of God, is born of God, no one born of God].[ 65 ] The Greek GEGENNEEMENOS[ 66 ] is born is perfect tense and denotes the present state resultant upon past action[ 67 ] (see chart HAS BEEN AND REMAINS BORN OF GOD). Thus, "born of God" denotes one who has been begotten or born of God and remains so. The one "begotten" is not a spiritual embryo but a living child of God practicing righteousness and avoiding sin (see 1Jo 2:29; 5:18).
HAS BEEN AND REMAINS BORN OF GOD
- You know that every one also who is practicing righteousness GEGENNEETAI has been born of him (1Jo 2:29).
- Everyone who loves GEGENNEETAI is born of God and knows God (1Jo 4:7).
- Whoever believes that Jesus is the Christ, GEGENNEETAI is born of God; and whoever loves Him who GENNEESANTA* gives birth, loves him also who GEGENNEEMENON is born of Him (1Jo 5:1).
- For whatever GEGENNEEMENON is born of God overcomes the world (1Jo 5:4).
- We know that anyone GEGENNEEMENOS having been born of God does not continue sinning, but he who GENNEETHEIS* is born of God watches over him and the evil one does not have a hold on him (1Jo 5:18).
*GENNEESANTA in 1 John 5:1 and GENNEETHEIS in 1 John 5:18 are aorist tenses. All other Greek verbs on this chart are perfect tenses [present state resultant upon past action].
Does not keep on practicing sin [doeth no sin, doth not commit sin, [ no one] commits sin, does not practice sin].[ 68 ] The Greek present tense denotes continuing to sin or the practicing of sinning. No one who is born of God does that. The reason is given in the next paragraph.
GOSPEL SEED ABIDING WITHIN
- If you abide in My word, then you are truly disciples of Mine (Joh 8:31).
- If you abide in Me, and My words abide in you, ask whatever you wish, and it shall be done for you (Joh 15:7).
- Let the word of Christ richly dwell within you (Col 3:16).
THE SEED [WORD OF GOD] ABIDING WITHIN
Because His seed abides in him [abideth, abides, in him, for his seed remaineth in him, for God's nature abides in him].[ 69 ] The "seed" that brings about the new birth is the word of God (Lu 8:11; Jas 1:18, 23; 1Pe 1:23, 25).[ 70 ] However, "Anyone going beyond and not remaining in the teaching of Christ, does not have God. He who remains in the teaching, has both the Father and the Son" (2Jo 9).
"CANNOT" DOES NOT ALWAYS MEAN IMPOSSIBILITY
And he is not able to keep on sinning [and he cannot sin].[ 71 ] The expression "is not able to" or "cannot" does not always mean absolute impossibility. For example, members of the Sanhedrin once conferred with one another, saying, "What shall we do with these men? For that indeed a notable miracle has been wrought through them, is manifest to all who dwell in Jerusalem, and we cannot deny it" (Ac 4:16). Did they mean that it would have been impossible for them to have denied it? No. They could have done so, but it would have been ineffective because many people knew about the miracle. Since denial was inappropriate under these circumstances, they properly said, "We cannot deny it." Subsequently, Peter and John said, "We cannot but speak the things that we saw and heard" (Ac 4:20). Did they mean that it would have been utterly impossible for them to have stopped preaching? Not really. What they meant was that since they knew for a fact that Jesus was raised from the dead, that miracles had been performed through the apostles and that their saving message was absolutely essential to the salvation of souls. To stop preaching it was out of the question! Along this line, Paul said, "Woe is to me, if I preach not the gospel" (1Co 9:16). With an understanding of the different usages of the word "cannot," we may correctly interpret this verse. "Cannot" does not mean it is absolutely impossible for a child of God to commit sin (see 1Jo 1:8, 10).
GREEK PRESENT TENSE IMPLIES A PRACTICE OF SINNING
The verb translated "practicing sin," "sin" or "keep on sinning" is present tense. In Greek, this means to make a practice of sinning. In the immediate context, John wrote, "Everyone who remains in Him does not keep on sinning.[ 72 ] Everyone who keeps on sinning, has neither seen Him nor known Him" (1Jo 3:6). Lest John's readers get the idea that a few sins here and there may be tolerated, he wrote in chapter 2, "My little children, I am writing these things to you that you may not sin. But if someone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the Righteous One" (1Jo 2:1). In that verse, both "sin" and "sins" are second aorist tenses and are thought to refer to single acts of sin.
Because he has been born of God [because he is begotten of God, born of God].[ 73 ] To be born of God is equivalent to being saved from sin. Jesus announced to Nicodemus, "Truly, truly, I say to you, Except one born anew, he cannot see the kingdom of God" (Joh 3:3). He added, "Except one be born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God" (Joh 3:5).
ONE NOT PRACTICING RIGHTEOUSNESS IS NOT OF GOD
3:10 By this the children of God are made known, and the children of the devil. Anyone who does not practice righteousness is not of God, also someone who does not love his brother.
By this [in this].[ 74 ] "By this" refers back to what John wrote about practicing righteousness and not practicing sin (see verses 7-9; compare the summation of his thoughts in verse 10). He restates and reinforces the description of a sinner, adding, "Also someone who does not love his brother" (see chart TRAITS OF A CHILD OF GOD).
TRAITS OF A CHILD OF GOD
- Practices righteousness (1Jo 3:10).
- Loves his brothers (1Jo 3:10, 14).
- Not like Cain who slew his brother (1Jo 3:11, 12).
- Is hated by world (1Jo 3:13).
- Has passed out of death into life (1Jo 3:14).
- Does not hate his brothers (1Jo 3:15).
- Lays down life for his brethren (1Jo 3:16).
- Shares the world's goods (1Jo 3:17).
- Loves in deed and truth (1Jo 3:18).
The children of God.[ 75 ] John recognized no gray area between the saved and lost. All the unsaved are children of the devil[ 76 ] (see chart TWO CLASSES OF PEOPLE AT 1Jo 3:1).
And the children of the devil [and who are the children of the devil].[ 77 ]
Are made known [are manifest, it may be seen who are].[ 78 ] Jesus, speaking of Judas, said to the apostles, "One of you is a devil" (Joh 6:70; compare 13:2, 27). He told some Jews, "You are of your father the devil" (Joh 8:44). Paul called the deceitful Elymas, "You son of the devil" (Ac 13:10). The devil's sons are "children of wrath" (Eph 2:3). They are "of the devil" (1Jo 3:8). Of all the accountable people in the world, there are only two classes: children of God and children of the devil. Outside of Christ, "The whole world is found in the evil one" (1Jo 5:19). Many people are the devil's children for no other reason than because they have not become Christians.
DIVINE SONSHIP TESTED BY LOVE
- This test inevitable (1Jo 3:10, 11).
- Cain, a prototype of hate (1Jo 3:12).
- Cain's spirit reproduced in the world (1Jo 3:13).
- Love, a sign of having passed from death to life (1Jo 3:14).
- Absence of love a sign of abiding in death (1Jo 3:14,15).
- Since Christ is the prototype of love, Christians are expected to love (1Jo 3:16).
- Genuine love consists not in words but deeds (1Jo 3:17,18).
- Confidence toward God resulting from love is confirmed by answered prayer (1Jo 3:19-22).
(Adapted from Law 22)
Anyone who does not practice righteousness [whosoever, whoever, doeth not righteousness, do right].[ 79 ] Any one who does not live right is not a child of God. Is that clear? If not, John adds, "Also someone who does not love his brother."
Is not of God.[ 80 ]
Also someone who does not love his brother [neither he that loveth not his brother, and he who does not, nor he who does not love his brother].[ 81 ] John elaborated on this point in 1 John 1:11 (compare Ro 13:8).
JOHN'S WORDS ABOUT LOVE
- Anyone who does not practice righteousness is not of God, also someone who does not love his brother (1Jo 3:10).
- The message from the beginning: love one another (1Jo 3:11).
- We know we have passed from death into life because we love the brethren (1Jo 3:14).
- We know love because He laid down His life for us (1Jo 3:16).
- In a heart closed from compassion, how does the love of God abide? (1Jo 3:17).
- Love in action and truth (1Jo 3:18).
LOVING ONE ANOTHER=MARK OF A CHRISTIAN
3:11, 12 For this is the message which you have heard from the beginning: that we should love one another. 12 Not like Cain! He was of the evil one and murdered his brother. And why did he murder him? Because his works were evil, and his brother's righteous.
For this is the message.[ 82 ] The Greek construction makes "the message"[ 83 ] almost equal to a command. Whether Christians love one another is not optional.
Which you have heard [which, that, ye heard, ye have heard].[ 84 ]
From the beginning.[ 85 ] By the mention of Cain (verse 12), it is suggested that there was instruction to Adam's family about loving one another. Jesus taught the apostles, "A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, even as I have loved you, that you also love one another. By this shall all men know that you are My disciples, if you have love one to another" (Joh 13:34, 35). Again, He taught them, "This is My commandment, that you love another, even as I have loved you. Greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends" (Joh 15:12, 13).
That.[ 86 ]
WE SHOULD LOVE ONE ANOTHER
- The message which you have heard from the beginning: that we should love one another (1Jo 3:11).
- And this is His commandment, that we should believe in the name of His Son Jesus Christ, and love one another according to the commandment He gave us (1Jo 3:23).
- Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God (1Jo 4:7).
- Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one another (1Jo 4:11).
- If we love one another, God abides in us, and His love is perfected in us (1Jo 4:12).
- And now I entreat you, lady, not as though I were writing a new commandment to you, but the one which we have had from the beginning, that we should love one another (2Jo 5).
We should love one another[ 87 ] (see verses 10, 14, 18; 4:20, 21; chart WE SHOULD LOVE ONE ANOTHER).
Not like Cain! [not as Cain, and not be like Cain, not as Cain was].[ 88 ] Cain did not obey the command to love one another. The pronoun "you" (in "you have heard") indicates John's readers had heard about the love command when they first received the gospel message. Cain is an example of negative love [hate] (see Mt 23:35; Lu 11:51; Heb 11:4; 12:24; Jude 11). Jesus is cited as a positive example of love (1Jo 3:16).
He was of the evil one [was of the evil one, who was of that wicked one, of the wicked one].[ 89 ] Satan was a murderer from the beginning (see Joh 8:44). Cain, a murderer, was of the devil. He was not born a sinner but became such because of his thoughts and actions. For one thing, he became a sinner because he did not love his brother.
And murdered his brother [and slew his brother].[ 90 ] The Greek word for "slew" or "murdered" originally meant to kill by cutting the throat. Some have thought that Abel cut the throat of the animal that was of "the firstlings of his flock" (Ge 4:4). When Cain saw that his own offering was rejected and Abel's accepted, he decided to "offer" his brother and cut his throat like a sheep! However, by NT times, the word came to mean no more than "to slay with violence."
And why did he murder him? [and wherefore, and on account of what, slew he him?[ 91 ]
Because his works were evil [because his works, his own works, deeds, were evil, were wicked].[ 92 ]
And his brother's righteous [and those of his brother righteous].[ 93 ] Cain finally understood that righteous worship gained God's approval, whereas his evil works did not. An ill feeling resulting from such thoughts is called envy. The change of mind to do right is repentance.
THE WORLD HATES CHRISTIANS
3:13 Do not be surprised, brethren, if the world hates you.
Do not be surprised [marvel not, do not wonder].[ 94 ] Some of the Christians in the first century could not understand how the world could hate them.[ 95 ] John calls upon them to "stop marveling" about that. They should "not be surprised." In some sinister hearts, hatred is stirred up just because they are evil and Christians righteous.
Brethren [my brethren].[ 96 ] John tenderly calls his fellow-Christians his brothers in Christ (compare 1Jo 2:7; 3:14, 16).
WORLD HATES THE RIGHTEOUS (A)
- Your brethren that hate you, who cast you out for My name's sake (Isa 66:5).
- You shall be hated by all the nations for My name's sake (Mt 24:9; Lu 21:17).
- Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, and reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake (Lu 6:22).
- Beloved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial among you, that comes upon you to prove you, as though a strange thing happened to you (1Pe 4:12).
WORLD HATES THE RIGHTEOUS (B)
- I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you (Joh 15:19).
- Now have they both seen and hated both Me and My Father. But this comes to pass that the word may be fulfilled that is written in their Law, "They hated Me without a cause" (Joh 15:24,25).
- They shall put you out of the synagogues; yea, the hour comes, that whoever kills you shall think that he offers service to God (Joh 16:2).
- I have given them Thy word; and the world hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world (Joh 17:14).
- Do not be surprised, brethren, if the world hates you (1Jo 3:13).
If the world hates you [if the world hateth you, hate you, that the world hates you].[ 97 ] There is a parallel here between Cain and Abel. Like Cain, the evil world hates Christians because of their righteous deeds (see charts WORLD HATES THE RIGHTEOUS A and B). The fact that a Christian is hated by the world does not give him license to return hatred for hatred.
WE KNOW LIFE BECAUSE WE LOVE
3:14 We know that we have passed from death into life because we love the brethren. He who does not love, remains in death.
We know.[ 98 ] The pronoun HEEMEIS we appears first in the Greek sentence to indicate that it is emphatic. The world may hate Christians (verse 13) but there is a blessing Christians know that far outweighs the disadvantage that brought about the hatred.
That we have passed.[ 99 ] Apparently, the Holy Spirit brought to John's remembrance Jesus' words, "Truly, truly, I say to you, he who hears My word, and believes Him who sent Me, has eternal life, and comes not into judgment, but has passed out of death into life" (Joh 5:24; compare 14:26).
From death [out of death].[ 100 ] What a marvelous blessing it is that, as Christians, we[ 101 ] know that we are no longer in a state of spiritual death but of spiritual life (see 1Jo 5:11)! I wonder about the Calvinistic doctrines of Unconditional Election and Predestination. Were the Calvinistic "elect" ever in spiritual "death"? If so, did they pass from death into life? Since God desires all to be saved, what would prevent others from slipping through the same passageway from death to life? Think about it.
Into life [to, unto, life].[ 102 ] John uses the phrase "into life" in reference to becoming a Christian. It also carries with it the "ring" of eternal life. In this connection, and after the lesson on children, Jesus said to His disciples, "And if your hand or your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off and cast it from you; it is good for you to enter into life maimed or halt, rather than having two hands or two feet, to be cast into the eternal fire" (Mt 18:8). He told the rich young ruler, "If you would enter into life, keep the commandments" (Mt 19:17). He identifies the process as involving, in part at least, hearing and believing the word. "Truly, truly, I say to you, He who hears My word, and believes Him who sent Me, has eternal life, and does not come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life" (Joh 5:24). Christians have the life now in the sense that they have Christ now. "He who has the Son, has life. He who does not have the Son of God, does not have life" (1Jo 5:12). In the sense of actual possession, Christians, like Paul, live on earth "in hope of" eternal life (Tit 1:2).
FROM DEATH TO LIFE
- Were dead through your trespasses and sins, wherein you once walked according to the course of this world (Eph 2:1).
- Even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved) (Eph 2:5).
- You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with Him, having forgiven us all our transgressions (Col 2:13).
LOVE THE BRETHREN
- Without love, we are nothing (1Co 13:2).
- Love never fails (1Co 13:8).
- Love abides (1Co 13:13).
- In Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision means anything, but faith working through love (Ga 5:6).
- The fruit of the Spirit is love (Ga 5:22).
- He who loves his brother remains in the light (1Jo 2:10).
- He who does not love, remains in death (1Jo 3:14).
Because.[ 103 ] John does not use the word "because" in order to explain how a person becomes a Christian or passes from death into life but in order to introduce an indication or sign of it.
We love the brethren.[ 104 ] Love, as well as light, accompanies life. "He who loves his brother remains in the light, and there is nothing causing offense in him" (1Jo 2:10). Love of the brethren is absolutely essential.
He who does not love [he that loveth not, he who does not love his brother].[ 105 ] "By this the children of God are made known, and the children of the devil. Anyone who does not practice righteousness is not of God, also someone who does not love his brother" (1Jo 3:10).
Remains in death [abideth in death, abides in death].[ 106 ] One who does not love his brother is in and remains in a condition of spiritual death, a state of conscious separation from God.
HATE AND MURDER
3:15 Whoever hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life abiding in him.
Whoever hates his brother [whosoever hateth his brother, every one, any one, who, that, hates his brother].[ 107 ] Love and hate are miles apart. A Christian is drawn to love but may be lured into hating. It is inconceivable to think that one can concurrently and actively persist in both loving and hating. Is one who hates a brother or is angry with him is a murderer in heart? Very likely. Jesus said as much with regard to lust and adultery (see Mt 5:28).
Is a murderer.[ 108 ] A person full of hate is capable of actual murder. The Lord looks within and is able to judge on the basis of what is in the heart. He cautioned about the inner feelings that might lead to murder when He said, "But I say to you that every one who is angry with his brother shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, You fool, shall be in danger of the hell of fire" (Mt 5:22). The devil was a murderer from the beginning. He sowed the seeds of hate in those he seduced.[ 109 ] An example of Satan's hateful influence is seen in the murder of Abel (see verse 12).
And you know that no murderer [and ye know that no murderer].[ 110 ] Pagans often viewed murder as of little consequence. For example, a murderer seeking protection among strangers might be regarded as only having been imprudent or to have been involved in a misadventure. In ancient times, on the very spot where the "crime" occurred, an "appropriate" penalty was often designed to soothe the wounded feelings of family or friends. A suitable fine might be something equivalent to the lost services of the dead man.[ 111 ] On the other hand, from the time when Cain murdered Abel, it has been clear that God has valued human life (see Ge 9:6). He considers murder to be a grave sin that causes the murderer to forfeit eternal life.
Has eternal life abiding in him [hath eternal life abiding in him].[ 112 ] Although there is a difference in outward degree of the sin, one who habitually hates his brother or sister is just as lost as an actual murderer. If a person hates his brother, he is a murderer in heart and is, just as certainly, without eternal life.
OUGHT TO LAY DOWN LIVES FOR BRETHREN
3:16 We know love because He laid down His life for us, and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren.
We know [hereby know we, perceive we, we have known, by this we know].[ 113 ] The Greek perfect tense indicates that John and his readers came to know love at some point in the past and that the knowledge of it continued to shape their lives. The way they came to know love was by the love of Christ Himself.
Love [the love of God (KJV)].[ 114 ] John describes what love is by the example of Jesus dying for mankind.
Because [that][ 115 ] (see 1Jo 2:3).
He laid down His life for us [he has laid down his life for us].[ 116 ] Jesus knew ahead of time the purpose for which He would die. "I am the Good Shepherd; the Good Shepherd lays down His life for the sheep" (Joh 10:11). "Greater love has no one than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends" (Joh 15:13). Paul reflected on the death of Christ as he wrote, "For scarcely for a righteous man will one die; for peradventure for the good man someone would even dare even to die" (Ro 5:7).
COPYING CHRIST'S LOVE
And we ought.[ 117 ] One major aspect of walking as Jesus walked is to have the same kind of self-sacrificing love that He had (see 1Jo 2:6). "We also ought to love one another" (see note on 1Jo 5:11).
LOVE SHOWN BY OFFERING ONE'S LIFE
- Judah (Ge 44:33).
- Moses (Ex 32:32; Heb 11:25).
- Jephtha's daughter (Jg 11:36).
- Ruth (Ru 2:11).
- Three of David's mighty men (2Sa 23:15-17).
- Esther (Es 4:16).
- Prisca and Aquila (Ro 16:3, 4).
To lay down our lives.[ 118 ] The Bible contains examples of people who either gave their lives for others or offered to do so (see chart LOVE SHOWN BY OFFERING ONE'S LIFE).
The writer has never been called upon to die for another. Perhaps he never shall be forced into such a crisis. Nevertheless, when he considers how negligible the possibility is, he would surely agree to do it. Right here where he lives, though, there are numerous calls to give up a few minutes of time, to donate some cash or to undergo a little inconvenience for someone. Love answers these calls also. There have been times when he has failed to respond. What does this say about his larger commitment to give up his life for another?
For the brethren.[ 119 ] "The brethren" is general enough to include Christians one hardly knows. Perhaps highlighted in the term "brethren" are the few who do not dress, act or smell the way others would prefer. These should be given love's special attention.
NO COMPASSION, NO LOVE OF GOD WITHIN
3:17 Now whoever has the world's goods, and sees his brother in need, and closes his heart against him, how can God's love be abiding in him?
Now whoever [but whoso, but if any one].[ 120 ]
Has the world's goods [hath the world's goods, this world's good, may have the world's substance].[ 121 ] The "world's goods" are items of value including real property, movable goods, securities and money. Many Christians have enough "things" to adequately exist. Instead of primarily seeking to better themselves financially, they share their luxuries (and sometimes necessities) with others.
And sees [and seeth, and see, and beholdeth].[ 122 ] "And sees" implies more than a casual glance. It suggests getting acquainted with circumstances and conditions. For example, when a brother in distress hides his destitution, a close friend or brother may, by careful observation and contemplation, determine that he is actually in need of basic necessities. All this observation and consideration is involved in seeing or beholding.
His brother in need [his brother have need, having need].[ 123 ] John Stott points out that the transition from "brethren" to "brother" may be deliberate. One may love brethren at large but when it comes to a certain individual it is a different story. Beholding the need of a brother puts one in debt to him, provided one has the ability to alleviate the distress.
And closes his heart [and shutteth up his compassion, bowels of compassion, yet closes his heart, and shut up his bowels].[ 124 ] Just as eternal life does not abide in the murderer (verse 15), love does not abide in the closed heart of a stingy Christian (verse 17). On the other hand, when a dedicated Christian sees a brother in need, because of God's love, a feeling of compassion wells up within his heart.
Against him [from him].[ 125 ]
How can God's love be abiding in him? [how doth, does, the love of God, abide in him, how dwelleth, how abides, the love of God in him?[ 126 ] Some careful students have wondered if the love of God is genitive of origin, objective genitive or genitive of quality. These thinkers ask, Is it love that comes from God or love that is God's kind of love coming from the heart of Christians? Actually, the problem solves itself. The love God has for Christians engenders within them a love like His toward others (see 1Jo 4:11, 19; compare 1Jo 2:5, 15; 4:9, 12; 20; 5:3).
LOVE IN DEED AND TRUTH
3:18 Little children, let us love, not in word or with the tongue, but in action and truth.
Little children [children, my little children][ 127 ] (see note and chart LITTLE CHILDREN at 1Jo 2:1).
Let us love, not in word [let us not love in word, with word].[ 128 ] I do not believe John forbids what he himself, other NT writers and even Christ Himself practiced. Believers were often called "beloved." Did not inspired men express their love with words? Surely this was not what is prohibited. The verse, therefore, needs to be interpreted figuratively. It may correctly be viewed as an ellipsis with the words "only" and "also" supplied for emphasis. It then reads: "Let us not love in word or with tongue [only] but in deed and truth [also]." The emphasis is upon love in deed and truth.
Or with the tongue [nor with tongue, neither with the tongue, in tongue, or speech].[ 129 ]
But in action and truth [but in deed and truth, and in truth].[ 130 ] The love demanded is not merely verbal. It is demonstrated by giving and doing. "In truth" means more than sincere feelings. It implies that it is to be according to the will of God (see verses 19, 22).
With verses 19-24, we now come to the close of this part of John's letter in which he discusses the blessed assurance in Christ and the confidence that prayers of Christians will be answered. The commands to believe and love are again stressed.
GOD'S BLESSED ASSURANCE
3:19, 20 By this we will know that we are of the truth, and will make our heart secure before Him, 20 because if our heart condemns us, God is greater than our heart, and knows all things.
By this we will know [hereby shall we know, and hereby we know, we shall know].[ 131 ] One way Christians may tell if they are of the truth is by their love. If they do not shut their heart of compassion against others but love in deed and truth then, on this point, their heart is assured before God.
That we are of the truth.[ 132 ] When some of the Pharisees and Herodians were sent to Jesus to trap Him, they perceived Him to be "of the truth." He was both "truthful" and He taught correctly "the way of God in truth" (Mk 12:14; Lu 20:21). Paul was a teacher of the Gentiles "in faith and truth" (1Ti 2:7). John said he was very glad to find some of the elect lady's children "walking in truth" (2Jo 4). To be "of the truth," therefore, is to be sincerely "of the word of God" and live according to it.
And will make our heart secure [and shall assure our heart, our hearts, and reassure our hearts, and shall persuade our hearts].[ 133 ] Knowledge of the proper sacrificial love within, and in action, assures the hearts of Christians that they are not of the devil (like Cain) and, therefore, not condemned.
The Bible heart includes the thoughts (Mt 9:4; Heb 4:12), the understanding (Mt 13:15; Ro 1:21), the reasoning powers (Mk 2:6; Lu 24:38) and the conscience (Ac 2:37; 1Jo 3:20). The latter is under primary consideration here.
ASSURANCE BEFORE GOD
Before Him.[ 134 ] A Christian's heart and life are before God as an open book. He knows all things. Assurance before Him is based upon the revealed word. It is reliable and trustworthy. It brings tranquility and peace.
Because if [for if, whenever, that if].[ 135 ]
Our heart condemns us [condemn us].[ 136 ] Some people tend to be too strict with themselves; others too lenient. If a person's doubting heart correctly condemns him, God does so with certainty. Christians receive assurance from the word itself regarding right and wrong as well as forgiveness. A forgiven person needs to forgive himself and get on with living for Christ.
[For, because].[ 137 ]
GOD IS GREATER THAN OUR HEART
God is greater.[ 138 ] God's judgment is neither too strict nor too lenient. It is just right because it is according to His holy word.
Than our heart [our hearts][ 139 ] (see notes and charts THE WORD IN THE HEART; THE BIBLE HEART at Ro 10:8, 10).
THE ALL-KNOWING GOD
- Naked is Sheol before God, and Abaddon has no covering (Job 26:6).
- Does not He see my ways, and number all my steps? (Job 31:4).
- His eyes are upon the ways of a man, and He sees all his goings (Job 34:21).
- His understanding is infinite (Ps 147:5).
- There is no searching of His understanding (Isa 40:28).
- No creature that is not manifest in His sight, but all things are naked and laid open before the eyes of Him with whom we have to do (Heb 4:13).
- God is greater than our heart, and knows all things (1Jo 3:20).
GOD'S GREAT KNOWLEDGE
- A God of knowledge, and by Him actions are weighed (1Sa 2:3).
- O God, Thou knowest my foolishness; and my sins are not hid from Thee (Ps 69:5).
- Thou knowest my downsitting my uprising; Thou understandest my thought afar off (Ps 139:2).
- He reveals the deep and secret things; He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him (Da 2:22).
- Your Father knows what things you have need of before you ask Him (Mt 6:8).
- The Lord knows the reasonings of the wise, that they are vain (1Co 3:20).
And knows all things [and knoweth all things, and he knows everything][ 140 ] (see charts THE ALL-KNOWING GOD; GOD'S GREAT KNOWLEDGE).
WHATEVER WE ASK WE RECEIVE
3:21, 22 Beloved, if our heart does not condemn us, we have confidence before God, 22 and whatever we ask we receive from Him, because we are keeping His commandments and doing the things that are pleasing in His sight.
Beloved[ 141 ] (see 1Jo 2:7; 3:2; 4:1, 7, 11; 3Jo 2, 5, 11).
If our heart does not condemn us [if our heart condemn us not, if our hearts do not condemn us].[ 142 ] After sins are renounced and confessed, there sometimes remains a lingering regret that may be interpreted as guilt. A forgiven Christian ought to forgive himself. "For I will be merciful to their iniquities, and their sins will I remember no more" (Heb 8:12). Remember, "He is faithful and righteous to forgive" (1Jo 1:9). God forgets. Why shouldn't Christians?
We have confidence [we have boldness, then have we confidence].[ 143 ] In spite of weaknesses and feeble obedience, one may come to heaven's throne with confidence because he obtains forgiveness when he prays (see note on 1Jo 2:28).
Before God [toward, towards, God].[ 144 ] John exalts the opportunity of prayer. It is open to all the sons and daughters of God. With confident heart, they come before Him in prayer.
CONDITIONS OF ANSWERED PRAYER (A)
- Keeping His commandments (1Jo 3:22).
- Doing the things that are pleasing in His sight (1Jo 3:22).
- Should believe in the name of His Son, Jesus Christ (1Jo 3:23).
- And love one another according to the commandment He gave us (1Jo 3:23).
CONDITIONS OF ANSWERED PRAYER (B)
- Humility, turning from wickedness (2Ch 7:14).
- Searching for God with all the heart (Jer 29:13).
- Agreeing on what to ask (Mt 18:19).
- Believing you will receive (Mk 11:24; Jas 5:15).
- Persistence (Lu 11:8-10).
- Abiding in Christ (Joh 15:7).
- Righteousness (Jas 5:16).
- Keeping God's commandments (1Jo 3:22).
- Asking according to God's will (1Jo 5:14).
And whatever we ask [and whatsoever we ask].[ 145 ] On the occasion when Jesus taught His disciples to pray, He encouraged them to ask for blessings.[ 146 ] "Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and you shall find; knock, and it shall be opened to you. For everyone who asks, receives; and he who seeks, finds; and to him who knocks, it shall be opened" (Lu 11:9, 10).
We receive from Him [we receive of him, and we receive from him].[ 147 ] Jesus promised the twelve, "If you abide in Me, and My words abide in you, ask whatever you will, and it shall be done to you" (Joh 15:7). John reinforces that and assures that prayers of the faithful will be answered (compare Joh 14:15; 15:14, 17).
WHY PRAYERS ARE NOT ANSWERED
- Rebellion against God's commands (De 1:45; 1Sa 14:37; 28:6).
- Regarding iniquity in the heart (Ps 66:18).
- Refusing God's wisdom and knowledge (Pr 1:24, 28, 29).
- Stopping one's ears to the cry of the poor (Pr 21:13).
- Turning away from hearing God's law (Pr 28:9).
- Bloodshed (Isa 1:15).
- Iniquities and sins (Isa 59:2).
- Having wrought evil (Mi 3:4).
- Making the heart like an adamant stone, lest one should hear the Law (Zec 7:12, 13).
- Doubts, instability, double-mindedness, instability (Jas 1:6, 7).
- Wrong motives [to spend in pleasures] (Jas 4:3).
Because we are keeping [because we keep].[ 148 ] David understood the connection between living right and receiving an answer to prayer. "Let Your hand be ready to help me, for I have chosen Your precepts" (Ps 119:173). He also understood the value of persistent prayer. "Behold, as the eyes of servants look to the hand of their master, as the eyes of a maid to the hand of her mistress; so our eyes look to the Lord our God, until He has mercy on us" (Ps 123:2; see charts CONDITIONS OF ANSWERED PRAYER A and B; WHY PRAYERS ARE NOT ANSWERED).
His commandments.[ 149 ] Jesus always obeyed God's commandments and did what was pleasing to Him (Joh 8:29). The commandments John speaks of are specifically NT commands. One of them is: "That he who loves God should love his brother also" (1Jo 4:21). Even though hundreds of NT passages are imperative, the commands are not grievous or burdensome. "For this is the love of God, that we keep His commandments. And His commandments are not burdensome" (1Jo 5:3).
And doing the things [and do the things, those things, and do what, and practice the things].[ 150 ]
That are pleasing [pleases him, which are pleasing].[ 151 ] When Jesus said, "And He who sent Me is with Me; He has not left Me alone, for I do always the things that are pleasing to Him," He made an impression on the people. Many came to believe on Him (see Joh 8:29, 30). Christians today who keep His commandments are pleasing in His sight. They also wield a powerful influence on others. Many have come to Christ because they were first influenced by Christians whose lives pleased God.
In His sight.[ 152 ] In order to be pleasing in God's sight, one must first be "of the truth" (see 1Jo 3:19).
BELIEVE AND LOVE
3:23 And this is His commandment, that we should believe in the name of His Son, Jesus Christ, and love one another according to the commandment He gave us.
And this is His commandment.[ 153 ] John now recapitulates the thoughts expressed in verses 10-22. He sums them up under one category: His "commandment." This encompasses love and belief in His Son Jesus Christ (see chart DIVINE SONSHIP TESTED BY BELIEF at 1Jo 4:1).
That we should believe in the name [that we believe on the name].[ 154 ] Some of the five thousand who had been fed on a previous day asked Jesus, "What must we do, that we may work the works of God?" Jesus said to them, "This is the work of God, that you believe on Him whom He has sent" (Joh 6:28, 29). To believe is to do a work of God in the sense of obeying His command. The antithesis of denying Christ is to believe in Him (see 1Jo 2:22, 23; 2Jo 7). To let the word abide within is commensurate with believing it (1Jo 2:24).
Of His Son, Jesus Christ.[ 155 ] To believe in the name of Christ means to believe in all that He is and stands for. Less than that is not true belief in Him or in His name.
And love one another [and that we love one another].[ 156 ] Just as belief and baptism are linked together with "and" (Mk 16:16), belief and love are coupled here. "What therefore God has joined together, let not man put asunder" (Mt 19:6; Mk 10:9). Both Paul and James maintain that faith alone without love for others is vain (compare 1Co 13:1-3; Jas 2:17, 26).
According to the commandment He gave us [as he gave, even as he gave, as he has given, us commandment, just as he has commanded us].[ 157 ] The second greatest commandment in the Law of Moses was, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself" (Mt 22:39; compare Le 19:18). However, John alludes to a new commandment given by Christ Himself, who said, "A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, even as I have loved you, that you also love one another" (Joh 13:34). In addition to this, Paul referred to the Savior's perfect example of love. "And walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for an odor of a sweet smell" (Eph 5:2).
COMMANDMENT-KEEPERS ABIDE IN CHRIST
3:24 And he who keeps His commandments remains in Him, and He in him. And by this we know that He remains in us, by the Spirit whom He gave us.
And he who keeps His commandments [and he that keepeth, keeps, all who keep, his commandments].[ 158 ] One who keeps the commandments of Christ abides in Him. The converse is also true. The one who abides in Him obeys His commandments. To have fellowship with Him, one must keep His commandments. The problem here is that no one keeps them perfectly. The solution to the problem is pardon freely given (see Ac 8:22; 1Jo 1:7, 9; 2:1).
Remains in Him, and He in him [abide, abides, abideth, in him, dwelleth in him, and he in him, them].[ 159 ]
And by this we know [and hereby we know].[ 160 ]
That He remains in us [that he abideth in us, abides in us].[ 161 ] Christ prayed for all true believers. "That they may all be one; even as Thou, Father, art in Me, and I in Thee, that they also may be in Us; that the world may believe that Thou didst send Me" (Joh 17:21). The very One who gave the new command to love one another truly "remains in us" (verse 23). God, Christ and the Holy Spirit all dwell within Christians by faith (compare 1Co 6:19; Eph 3:17-19).
By the Spirit whom He gave us [by the Spirit which he gave us, which he hath, has, given us, to us].[ 162 ] I believe John is speaking of the miraculous measure of the Holy Spirit given to the apostles and others in the first century. Any Christian in those days, gifted or not, could determine the truth of the gospel and know that Christ was in him because of the miracles performed or observed. The miraculous manifestation of the Holy Spirit given to the apostles, and to others through them, confirmed the truthfulness of what John said about Christ abiding "in us."
There is a wonderful sense, however, that the Holy Spirit dwells within each Christian. "But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if anyone does has not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His" (Ro 8:9). Nevertheless, the knowledge that we today "know that we know Him" and that "we are in Him" comes through believing His word and keeping His commandments (1Jo 2:3, 5). Assurance of forgiveness is abundantly given through the word. This, too, is by the Spirit.
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 3
John has discussed the fact that Christians are sons of God, should purify themselves and not practice sin. He has explained, among other things, that righteousness involves loving the brethren and having a heart of compassion. Furthermore, he has cited the Holy Spirit as giving assurance that Christians abide in Christ.
[ 1 ] The basic text in this chapter is the OPV (Old Paths Version). Quotations from 1, 2 and 3 John and from Colossians are from the OPV unless otherwise noted. Alternate phrases are from the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method. Many quotations are from an updated but unpublished ASV.
[ 2 ] IDETE, see ye (Marshall 937); second person plural, second aorist active imperative of HORAOO (Han 429); literally, behold ye. The plural is peculiar. The usual form is the singular IDE or IDOU [see Joh 1:29; 11:3, etc.; 4:35; 19:26, 27]. Elsewhere the plural is used of something actually visible [Ga 6:11] (Vincent 2.343); calling attention to what may be seen or heard or mentally apprehended in any way (Vine 106); plural--"all of you behold what I have just seen" (Harrison 1472); see, take notice of, be impressed with (Woods 256); consider the great love that God has shown (Arndt 221).
[ 3 ] POTAPEEN, what manner of (Marshall 937); originally, from what country or race; then, of what sort or quality. It is used of the quality of both persons and things (Vincent 2.343); primarily, from what country, then, of what sort (Vine 710); what kind of foreign or other-worldly love (Kenneth S. Wuest, In These Last Days, 142, via Harrison); what glorious, sublime, immeasurable love the Father hath bestowed upon us. . ." (Woods 256); of what sort or quality? [What manner of?] (Thayer 533).
[ 4 ] AGAPEEN HO PATEER, love the Father (Marshall 937); to give a proof of love (Thayer 4); [the] Father (Arndt 636).
[ 5 ] Isaac Watts, in 1707, penned the song "When I Survey the Wondrous Cross." In the last stanza, he wrote, "Love so amazing, so divine, demands my soul, my life, my all." Appropriately, D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones entitled his commentary on Colossians 1, Love So Amazing.
[ 6 ] DEDOOKEN HEEMIN, has given to us (Marshall 937); DEDOOKEN is third person singular, perfect active indicative of DIDOOMI (Han 429); emphasizing the endowment of the receiver. Compare CHARIS grace, favor, which emphasizes the good-will of the giver [see Ga 3:18; Php 2:9; 1:29] (Vincent 2.343); given freely (Vine 113); literally, hath given. The perfect tense indicates further that the gift is a permanent possession of the child of God (Harrison 1472); the Greek perfect tense denotes the present state resultant upon a past action (Machen 452); the act or effect of him who gives . . . conceived of as effecting, or as becoming its author (Thayer 145).
[ 7 ] HINA, in order that (Marshall 937); some of the more subtle phases of John's thought cannot be apprehended without a careful study of this often-recurring conjunction. It is still claimed by some grammarians that it is used to mark, not only design and end, but also result. But it may fairly be claimed that its predominant sense is intent, purpose, purport, or object. Hence that, as representing HINA, is to be taken in the sense of to the end or intent that; in order that (Vincent 2.251).
[ 8 ] KLEETHOOMEN, we may be called (Marshall 937); first person plural, first aorist passive subjunctive of KALEOO (Han 429); or named [as Mt 2:23; 21:13; Lu 1:13, 31, etc.]. The verb is never used by John of the divine call (Vincent 2.343); noun clauses introduced by HINA standing in apposition to a noun or pronoun and containing an explanation of the meaning of the noun or pronoun. This construction is very common in the writings of St John. The verb is always in the subjunctive mood (Nunn 108).
[ 9 ] TEKNA THEOU, children of God (Marshall 937); children (Vincent 2.343); gives prominence to the fact of birth . . . figuratively, used of children of God (Vine 179); literally, born ones or children (Harrison 1472); universally and without regard to sex, children. . . . "In St. Paul the expressions `sons of God', `children of God', mostly convey the idea of liberty [see however Php 2:15], in St John of guilelessness and love; in accordance with this distinction St. Paul uses HUIOI as well as TEKNA, St. John TEKNA only" [Bishop Lightfoot] (Thayer 617, 618); in John as those begotten by God (Arndt 808).
[ 10 ] Notice the parallel thought with John chapter 3 where Jesus discusses the new birth (verses 3, 5). Then he expresses God's magnificent love (Joh 3:16).
[ 11 ] KAI ESMEN, and we are (Marshall 937); ESMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 429); literally, and we are (Vincent 2.343).
[ 12 ] Usually, by the "best texts," most writers mean only two: the Vatican and Sinaitic manuscripts.
[ 13 ] DIA TOUTO HO KOSMOS OU GINOOSKEI HEEMAS, therefore the world not knows us (Marshall 937, 938); GINOOSKEI is third person singular, present active indicative of GINOOSKOO (Han 429); in particular, GINOOSKOO, to become acquainted with, to know (Thayer 117); DIA TOUTO may be regarded as referring backward or forward (I. Marshall 171).
[ 14 ] HOTI OUK EGNOO AUTON, because it knew not him (Marshall 938); EGNOO is third person singular, second aorist active indicative of GINOOSKOO (Han 429).
[ 15 ] AGAPEETOI, beloved (Marshall 938); wherever the KJV has "dearly beloved," the ASV has "beloved;" so, "well beloved" in 3 John 1" (Vine 110); see note on 1Jo 2:7).
[ 16 ] NUN TEKNA THEOU ESMEN, now children of God we are (Marshall 938); the present condition of God's children (Vincent 2.344); gives prominence to the fact of birth . . . figuratively, of children of God (Vine 179).
[ 17 ] KAI OUPOO EPHANEROOTHEE, and not yet was it manifested (Marshall 938); EPHANEROOTHEE is third person singular, first aorist passive indicative of PHANEROOO (Han 429); the future condition of God's children, placed side by side with [the above phrase] with a simple copula, and, as parts of one thought. Christian condition, now and eternally, centers in the fact of being children of God. In that fact lies the germ of all the possibilities of eternal life (Vincent 2.344); uncovered, laid bare, revealed (Vine 708).
[ 18 ] TI ESOMETHA, what we shall be (Marshall 938); ESOMETHA is first person plural, future middle indicative of EIMI (Han 429); future indicative plural of EIMI I am (Machen 250); this what suggests something unspeakable, contained in the likeness of God (Bengel, quoted by Vincent 2.344).
[ 19 ] OIDAMEN HOTI, we know that (Marshall 938); OIDAMEN is first person plural, perfect active indicative of OIDA (Han 429); omit but (Vincent 2.344); signifying, primarily, to have seen or perceived; hence, know, have knowledge of, whether absolutely, as in Divine knowledge . . . or in the case of human knowledge, know from observation (Vine 628).
[ 20 ] EAN PHANEROOTHEE, if he(?it) is manifested (Marshall 938); PHANEROOTHEE is third person singular, first aorist passive subjunctive of PHANEROOO (Han 429); if He [or it] shall be manifested. We may render either "if it shall be manifested," that is what we shall be; or, "if He," etc. The preceding EPHANEROOTHEE it is [not yet] made manifest, must, I think, decide us in favor of the rendering it (Vincent 2.344); is made visible, clear, manifest, known [akin to PHANEROS open to sight, visible, manifest], used especially in the writings of the Apostles John and Paul, occurring 9 times in the Gospel, 9 times in 1 John, 2 in Revelation; in the Pauline Epistles [including Hebrews] 24 times; in the other Gospels, only in Mark, 3 times; elsewhere in 1 Peter 1:20; 5:4. The true meaning is to uncover, lay bare, reveal; "is made manifest, doth appear" (Vine 708).
[ 21 ] HOMOIOI AUTOO ESOMETHA, like him we shall be (Marshall 938); ESOMETHA is first person plural, future middle indicative of EIMI (Han 429); like, resembling, such as, the same as, used of ability, condition, nature (Vine 672); we shall be like him (Arndt 566).
[ 22 ] HOTI OPSOMETHA AUTON, because we shall see him (Marshall 938); OPSOMETHA is first person plural, future middle indicative of HORAOO (Han 429); of the knowledge of God that may be looked for in his future kingdom (Thayer 451); see God (Arndt 578).
[ 23 ] KATHOOS ESTIN, as he is (Marshall 938); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 429); strictly, just as (Vincent 2.344); we shall see him [just] as he is (Arndt 391).
[ 24 ] KAI PAS HO ECHOON, and everyone having (Marshall 938); ECHOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of ECHOO (Han 429); a characteristic form of expression with John, containing "a reference to some who had questioned the application of a general principle in particular cases" (Vincent 2.345).
[ 25 ] TEEN ELPIDA, this hope (Marshall 938); John's only reference to Christian hope (Vincent 2.345); it is a purifying power, "every one that hath this hope set on Him [Christ] purifieth himself, even as He is pure," 1 John 3:3, ASV [the Apostle John's one mention of hope] (Vine 563).
[ 26 ] TAUTEEN EP' AUTOO, on him (Marshall 938); set on Him (Vincent 2.345); on Him [Christ] (Vine 563); literally, on [EPI] him, that is, hope resting on him (Harrison 1472); in him (Williams).
[ 27 ] HAGNIZEI HEAUTON, purifies himself (Marshall 938); HAGNIZEI is third person singular, present active indicative of HAGNIZOO (Han 429); in the Septuagint used only of ceremonial purification, and so four out of the seven instances in which it occurs in the NT (Joh 11:55; Ac 21:24, 26; 24:18). In the remaining cases, of purifying the heart and the soul (Vincent 2.345); [akin to HAGNOS pure from defilement], pure, purifies, cleanses from defilement (Vine 905); present tense, constantly purifies himself (Harrison 1473).
[ 28 ] Without faith it is impossible to please God (Heb 11:6) but belief alone is not sufficient for salvation (see Jas 2:24, 26).
[ 29 ] KATHOOS EKEINOS, as that one (Marshall 938); Christ, as always in the Epistle (Vincent 2.345).
[ 30 ] HAGNOS ESTIN, pure is (Marshall 938); though marking moral and spiritual purity, and that of a very high grade, since it is applied to Christ here, yet it admits the thought of possible temptation or pollution, thus differing from HAGIOS, which means absolutely holy. Hence HAGNOS cannot properly be applied to God, who is HAGIOS; but both may be used of Christ, the latter in virtue of His human perfection (Vincent 2.345, 346); pure from defilement, not contaminated [from the same root as HAGIOS holy] (Vine 903).
[ 31 ] PAS HO POIOON TEEN HAMARTIAN, everyone doing sin (Marshall 938); POIOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of POIEOO (Han 429); every one that doeth sin . . . regards sin as something actually realized in its completeness. He that does sin realizes in action the sin [note the article TEEN], that which includes and represents the complete ideal of sin (Vincent 2.346); a generic term [distinct from specific terms . . . yet sometimes inclusive of concrete wrong doing. . . .]; 1 John 1;7, 8; 3:4 [first part; in the second part, sin is defined as "lawlessness," ASV], 8, 9; in these verses the KJV use of the verb to commit is misleading; not the committal of an act is in view, but a continuous course of sin, as indicated by the ASV, "doeth." The Apostle's use of the present tense of POIEOO, to do, virtually expresses the meaning of PRASSOO, to practice, which John does not use (Vine 1045); literally, doeth the sin (Harrison 1473); "Doeth" is present tense; [sin is] a general term embracing every form of wrongdoing, all divergence from that which is right (Woods 260); that which is done wrong, committed or resultant sin, an offence, a violation of the divine law in thought or in act (Thayer 31).
[ 32 ] In addition, John uses the simple HO, translated either "he who" or "anyone who" in 1 John 3:7, 8, 10 (Stott 126).
[ 33 ] KAI TEEN ANOMIAN POIEI, also lawlessness does (Marshall 938); POIEI is third person singular present active indicative of POIEOO (Han 429); doeth also lawlessness (Vincent 2.346); in 1 John 3:4, the ASV adheres to the real meaning of the word, "every one that doeth sin [a practice, not the committal of an act] doeth also lawlessness: and sin is lawlessness" (Vine 647); lawlessness is that state or manner of life wherein one fails to conform to law, whether in positive disobedience thereto, or in failing to come up to its demands (Woods 260).
[ 34 ] In Isaiah 8:20, the ASV reads, "surely there is no morning for them." The NASB reads, "it is because they have no dawn." The NKJV reads, "because there is no light in them."
[ 35 ] KAI HE HAMARTIA ESTIN HEE ANOMIA, and sin is lawlessness (Marshall 938); and [sin] is lawlessness (Vincent 2.346); this definition of sin sets forth its essential character as the rejection of the law, or will, of God and the substitution of the will of self (Vine 647); when an adjective either precedes the article or follows the noun without taking an article before it, it is said to be in the predicative position and does not qualify the noun as an attribute, but forms part of the predicate of the sentence. If however the predicate is identical with the subject or denotes something previously well known, the definite article may be used in the predicate [as here]. Sin is lawlessness [that is, they are identical] (Nunn 76).
[ 36 ] KAI OIDATE, and ye know (Marshall 938); second person plural perfect active indicative of OIDA (Han 429); John's characteristic appeal to Christian knowledge (Vincent 2.346); in the case of human knowledge, know from observation (Vine 628).
[ 37 ] HOTI EKEINOS EPHANEROOTHEE, and ye know that one was manifested (Marshall 938); EPHANEROOTHEE is third person singular, first aorist passive indicative of PHANEROOO (Han 429); same verb as that translated unveil ["appears"] above, but here it refers to the incarnation, Christ becoming human (Williams 352); Christ, as always in this Epistle. [That He appeared includes] Christ's whole life on earth and its consequences. The idea of manifestation here assumes the fact of a previous being (Vincent 2.346); of Christ previously hidden from view in heaven but after his incarnation made visible on earth as a man among men (Thayer 648; ideas for charts on CHRIST'S MANIFESTATION were borrowed from Canon Westcott via Vincent 2.347).
[ 38 ] Some other purposes were (1) to fulfill prophecy, (2) to set a perfect example, (3) to instruct the disciples, (4) to take the OT law out of the way and (5) to prepare for the establishment of His church.
[ 39 ] Machen 452.
[ 40 ] HINA AREE, in order that he might bear (Marshall 938); AREE is third person singular, first aorist active subjunctive of AIROO (Han 429); to lift, carry, take up or away . . . used of Christ as "the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world," not the sins, but sin, that which has existed from the time of the Fall, and in regard to which God has had judicial dealings with the world; through the expiatory sacrifice of Christ the sin of the world will be replaced by everlasting righteousness; compare the plural, "sins", in 1 John 3:5 (Vine 1118); first aorist [once for all] subjunctive of AIROO; a burden or load lifted in order not to crush him upon whom it rests; and, as here figuratively used, it signifies the lifting and carrying away of sins that they may be upon us no more (Woods 262); the verb means "to take away" rather than "to atone for" sins (I. Marshall 177).
[ 41 ] TAS HAMARTIAS [HEEMOON], sins (Marshall 938); omit HEEMOON our. The plural here regards all that is contained in the inclusive term the sin: all manifestations or realizations of sin (Vincent 2.347).
[ 42 ] KAI HAMARTIA EN AUTOO OUK ESTIN, and sin in him is not (Marshall 938); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 429); literally, in Him sin is not. He is essentially and forever without sin (Vincent 2.347); in Johannine usage HAMARTIA is conceived as a condition or characteristic quality, sinfulness, and is opposed to ALETHEIA truth (Arndt 43).
[ 43 ] PAS HO EN AUTOO MENOON OUCH HAMARTANEI, everyone in him remaining sins not (Marshall 938); HAMARTANEI is third person singular, present active indicative of HAMARATANOO (Han 429); to abide in Christ is more than to be in Him, since it represents a condition maintained by communion with God and by the habitual doing of His will (Vincent 2.347, 348); present tense, indicating the habitual character (Harrison 1473); Christians are said MENEIN EN TOO THEOO, to be rooted as it were in him, knit to him by the spirit they have received from him (Thayer 399); no one who continues to live in union with Him practices sin (Williams); whosoever keeps on abiding (Woods 263).
[ 44 ] I. Marshall 181.
[ 45 ] We know that it is possible for Christians to commit sins (see 1Jo 1:8, 10; 2:1, 10; 5:16). I reject the hypothesis that John was referring to only a particular type of sin or deliberate and wilful sin. I discount also the supposition that John refers only to the sin unto death (1Jo 5:18).
[ 46 ] PAS HO HAMARTANOON OUCH, everyone sinning not (Marshall 938); HAMARTANOON is the present active participle, nominative singular, masculine of HAMARTANOO (Han 429); no one who practices sin (Williams); John does not teach that believers do not sin, but is speaking of a character, a habit. Throughout the Epistle he deals with the ideal reality of life in God, in which the love of God and sin exclude each other as light and darkness (Vincent 2.348); present tense, indicating the habitual character (Harrison 1473).
[ 47 ] The writer is aware of Christian adulterers who have been salvaged, even former elders and preachers.
[ 48 ] HEOOERAKEN AUTON OUDE EGNOOKEN AUTON, has seen him nor has known him (Marshall 938); HEOOERAKEN is third person singular, perfect active indicative of HORAOO; EGNOOKEN is third person singular, perfect active indicative of GINOOSKOO (Han 429); knoweth; the vision of Christ and the appropriation of what is seen (Vincent 2.348); in particular, GINOOSKOO, to become acquainted with, to know, is employed in the NT of the knowledge of God and Christ, and of the things relating to them or proceeding from them . . . the nature of God the Father, especially the holy will and affection by which he aims to sanctify and redeem men through Christ, his sinless holiness (Thayer 117).
[ 49 ] For more discussion of the possibility of apostasy or falling from grace, see notes on Galatians 5:4; Hebrews 10:39.
[ 50 ] TEKNIA, little children (Marshall 938); little child, diminutive of TEKNON, used figuratively in the NT, and always in the plural. . . . a term of affection by a teacher to his disciples under circumstances requiring a tender appeal, for example, of Christ to the Twelve just before his death; the Apostle John used it in warning believers against spiritual dangers (Vine 179).
[ 51 ] MEEDEIS PLANATOO HUMAS, no man let lead astray you (Marshall 938); PLANATOO is third person singular, present active imperative of PLANAOO (Han 429); lead astray (Vincent 2.348); deceive by leading into error, seduce (Vine 272); lead [you] into error, deceive (Thayer 514).
[ 52 ] HO POIOON TEEN DIKAIOSUNEEN, the [one] doing righteousness (Marshall 938); POIOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of POIEOO (Han 429); note the article TEEN the righteousness, in its completeness and unity. Not merely doing righteous acts (Vincent 2.348); present tense, "habitually doeth" (Harrison 1473); whoever practices doing right (Williams).
[ 53 ] DIKAIOS ESTIN, righteous is (Marshall 938); upright, righteous, virtuous, keeping the commands of God (Thayer 148).
[ 54 ] KATHOOS EKEINOS DIKAIOS ESTIN, as that one righteous is (Marshall 938); just as He is upright (Williams).
[ 55 ] HO POIOON TEEN HAMARTIAN, the [one] doing sin (Marshall 938); HAMARTANEI is third person singular, present active indicative of HAMARTANOO (Han 429); a generic term [distinct from specific terms . . . yet sometimes inclusive of concrete wrong doing. . . .]; 1 John 1;7, 8; 3:4 [first part; in the second part, sin is defined as "lawlessness," ASV], 8, 9; in these verses the use of the verb to commit is misleading; not the committal of an act is in view, but a continuous course of sin, as indicated by the ASV, "doeth." The Apostle's use of the present tense of POIEOO, to do, virtually expresses the meaning of PRASSOO, to practice, which John does not use (Vine 1045); present tense, "he who is continually doing sin" (Harrison 1473); that which is done wrong, committed or resultant sin, an offence, a violation of the divine law in thought or in act (Thayer 31); whoever practices sin (Williams).
[ 56 ] EK TOU DIABOLOU ESTIN, of the devil is (Marshall 938); belongs to the devil (Williams); the meaning of EK TOU DIABOLOU is not certain. It may express belonging to the devil or originating from him (I. Marshall 184).
[ 57 ] HOTI HO DIABOLOS HAMARTANEI, because the devil sins (Marshall 938); HAMARTANEI is third person singular, present active indicative of HAMARTANOO (Han 429); present tense indicates continuousness. He sinned in the beginning, and has never ceased to sin from the beginning, and still sinneth (Vincent 2.348); because the devil has practiced sin from the beginning (Williams).
[ 58 ] AP' ARCHEES, from [the] beginning (Marshall 938); the root ARCH- primarily indicated what was of worth. Hence the verb ARCHOO meant "to be first," and ARCHOON denoted a ruler. So also arose the idea of a beginning, the origin, the active cause, whether a person or a thing (Vine 103); beginning, origin; used absolutely, of the beginning of all things (Thayer 76); beginning, origin (Arndt 112).
[ 59 ] EIS TOUTO HO HUIOS TOU THEOU, for this the Son of God (Marshall 938); for the first time in the Epistle. Hitherto the title has been the Son, or His Son (Vincent 2.348).
[ 60 ] EPHANEROOTHEE, for this was manifested (Marshall 938); EPHANEROOTHEE is third person singular, first aorist passive indicative of PHANEROOO (Han 429).
[ 61 ] Other passages dealing with Christ's opposition to Satan are Matthew 4:1-11; 12:25-29; Luke 10:18; Revelation 12:7-12; 20:1-3.
[ 62 ] HINA LUSEE, in order that he might undo (Marshall 938); LUSEE is third person singular, first aorist active subjunctive of LUOO (Han 429); literally, dissolve, loosen (Vincent 2.348); loose, dissolve, sever, break, demolish (Vine 294); literally, loose (Harrison 1473); loosen, undo, dissolve . . . metaphorically, overthrow, do away with (Thayer 385).
[ 63 ] The word "destroy" is LUSEE, undo or unloose. The word was used in the break up of Paul's ship. The "stern ELUETO began to be broken up by the force of the waves (Ac 27:41). A related word is used for the breaking up of an assembly in Acts 13:43. "Now when the meeting of the synagogue LUTHEISEES had broken up, many of the Jews and of the God-fearing proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas."
[ 64 ] TA ERGA TOU DIABOLOU, the works of the devil (Marshall 938); works, employment, tasks of the Devil (Vine 1243); the devil's works (Williams).
[ 65 ] PAS HO GEGENNEEMENOS EK TOU THEOU, everyone having been begotten of God (Marshall 938, 939); GEGENNEEMENOS is the perfect passive participle, nominative singular masculine of GENNAOO (Han 429); on the form of expression . . . perfect participle indicates a condition remaining from the first: he who hath been begotten and remains God's child (Vincent 2.349); begotten, born . . . used metaphorically in the writings of the Apostle John, of the gracious act of God in conferring upon those who believe the nature and disposition of "children," imparting to them spiritual life, John 3:3, 5, 7; 1 John 2:29; 3:9; 4:7; 5:1, 4, 18 (Vine 101); perfect participle, past action with results continuing to the present--"has been and remains born" (Harrison 1473).
[ 66 ] When John introduced the subject of being born again in 1 John 2:29, he also used the perfect tense.
[ 67 ] Machen 452.
[ 68 ] HAMARTIAN POIEI, sin [not] does (Marshall 939); POIEI is third person singular present active indicative of POIEOO (Han 429); a generic term [distinct from specific terms . . . yet sometimes inclusive of concrete wrong doing. . . .]; 1 John 1:7, 8; 3:4 [first part; in the second part, sin is defined as "lawlessness," ASV], 8, 9; in these verses the use of the verb to commit is misleading; not the committal of an act is in view, but a continuous course of sin, as indicated by the ASV, "doeth." The Apostle's use of the present tense of POIEOO, to do, virtually expresses the meaning of PRASSOO, to practice, which John does not use (Vine 1045); present tense, indicating habitual sinning (Harrison 1473); makes a practice of sinning (Williams).
[ 69 ] HOTI SPERMA AUTOU EN AUTOO MENEI, because seed of him in him remains (Marshall 939); third person singular, present active indicative of MENOO (Han 429); the divine principle of life (Vincent 2.349); as to 1 John 3:9, "his seed abideth in him," it is possible to understand this as meaning that children of God [His seed] abide in Him, and do not go on doing [practicing] sin [the verb to commit does not represent the original in this passage]. Alternatively, the seed signifies the principle of spiritual life as imparted to the believer, which abides in him without possibility of removal or extinction; the child of God remains eternally related to Christ, he who lives in sin has never become so related, he has not the principle of life in him. This meaning suits the context and the general tenor of the Epistle (Vine 1011); the God-given life-principle [Greek seed, so the life-principle] continues to live in him (Williams); whatever possesses vital force or life-giving power: TO SPERMA TOU THEOU [(but anarthrous)], the Holy Spirit, the divine energy operating within the soul by which we are regenerated or made the TEKNA TOU THEOU (Thayer 584); the seed of God . . . the beginning or germ of a new life, planted in us by the Spirit of God . . . word or spirit . . . the grace that makes us holy; RSV and others, nature), that dwells in the one who is GEGENNEEMENOS EK TOU THEOU . . . and makes it "impossible for him to sin" (Arndt 762); a divine principle of life which abides in the believer (I. Marshall 186).
[ 70 ] Some take the "seed" to mean the Spirit (see Joh 3:6, 8). If this be the case, there still is a connection with the word of God (compare Joh 6:63). "For our gospel did not come to you in word only, but also in power and in the Holy Spirit and with full conviction" (1Th 1:5).
[ 71 ] KAI OU DUNATAI HAMARTANEIN, and he cannot to sin (Marshall 939); DUNATAI is third person singular present passive indicative of DUNAMAI; HAMARTANEIN is present active infinitive of HAMARTANOO (Han 429); conceived as a perfect ideal, life in God excludes the possibility of sin (Vincent 2.349); a generic term [distinct from specific terms . . . yet sometimes inclusive of concrete wrong doing. . . .]; 1 John 1;7, 8; 3:4 [first part; in the second part, sin is defined as "lawlessness," ASV], 8, 9; in these verses the use of the verb to commit is misleading; not the committal of an act is in view, but a continuous course of sin, as indicated by the ASV, "doeth." The Apostle's use of the present tense of POIEOO, to do, virtually expresses the meaning of PRASSOO, to practice, which John does not use (Vine 1045); present tense, indicating habitual sinning (Harrison 1473); and so he cannot practice sinning (Williams).
[ 72 ] "Sins" or "keep on sinning" is present tense in Greek, indicating habitual sinning.
[ 73 ] HOTI EK TOU THEOU GEGENNEETAI, because of God he has been begotten (Marshall 939); GEGENNEETAI is third person singular, perfect passive indicative of GENNAOO (Han 429); used metaphorically in the writings of the Apostle John, of the gracious act of God in conferring upon those who believe the nature and disposition of "children," imparting to them spiritual life (Vine 101); perfect participle, past action with results continuing to the present--"has been and remains born" (Harrison 1473); peculiarly, in the Gospel and 1 Epistle of John, of God conferring upon men the nature and disposition of his sons, imparting to them spiritual life, that is, by his own holy power prompting and persuading souls to put faith in Christ and live a new life consecrated to himself (Thayer 113); or, for the offspring of God abide in him, and they cannot sin because they are (RSV footnote).
[ 74 ] EN TOUTOO, by this (Marshall 939).
[ 75 ] PHANERA ESTIN, manifest is [are] (Marshall 939); an adjective, open to sight, visible, manifest [from the root PHAN- shining] (Vine 708); adjective, visible, clear, plainly to be seen, open, plain, evident, known (Arndt 852).
[ 76 ] Some are not far from the kingdom of God (Mk 12:34) and the kingdom is near certain individuals (see Lu 10:9-11).
[ 77 ] TA TEKNA TOU THEOU, the children of God (Marshall 939); gives prominence to the fact of birth . . . figuratively, of children of God (Vine 179); in John as those begotten by God (Arndt 808).
[ 78 ] KAI TA TEKNA TOU DIABOLOU, the only occurrence of the phrase (Vincent 2.349); those who in thought and action are prompted by the devil, and so reflect his character (Thayer 618); the wicked are HUIOI DIABOLOU, Acts 13:10 (Arndt 182).
[ 79 ] PAS HO MEE POIOON DIKAIOSUNEEN, everyone not doing righteousness (Marshall 939); POIOON is the present active participle nominative singular masculine of POIEOO (Han 429); no one who fails to do right (Williams); here the article is wanting [compare verse 7]. Righteousness is regarded, not in its completeness, but as bearing a particular character (Vincent 2.349). Vincent suggests an interesting study: the distinction between the following words with and without the article: HAMARTIA sin; AGAPEE love; ZOOEE life; ALEETHEIA truth.
[ 80 ] OUK ESTIN EK TOU THEOU, is not of God (Marshall 939); is [not] God's child (Williams).
[ 81 ] KAI HO MEE AGAPOON TON ADELPHON AUTOU, and the [one] not loving the brother of him (Marshall 939); AGAPOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of AGAPAOO (Han 429); love can be known only from the actions it prompts (Vine 693).
[ 82 ] HOTI HAUTE ESTIN HEE ANGELIA, because this is the message (Marshall 939); [akin to ANGELLOO to bring a message, proclaim], denotes a message, proclamation, news, 1 John 1:5 [some manuscripts have EPANGELIA, EPI upon, ANGELIA a message]; 1 John 3:11, where the word is more precisely defined [by being followed by the conjunction "that," expressing the purpose that we should love one another as being virtually equivalent to an order (Vine 736); a message, announcement, thing announced; precept declared (Thayer 5); ANGELIA almost means "command"; HAUTE points forward to the HINA clause [which] is an indirect command (I. Marshall 189).
[ 83 ] Compare 1 John 1:5.
[ 84 ] HEEN EEKOUSATE, which ye heard (Marshall 939); EEKOUSATE is second person plural, first aorist active indicative of KOUOO (Han 429); gotten by hearing, learned; in a relative sense, of the beginning of the thing spoken of: as soon as instruction was imparted (Thayer 23); the aorist EECHOUSATE refers to the action of hearing "regarded as a completed whole irrespective of its duration" (Haas 87 via I. Marshall 189).
[ 85 ] AP' ARCHEES, from [the] beginning (Marshall 939); in a relative sense, of the beginning of the thing spoken of: as soon as instruction was imparted (Thayer 76).
[ 86 ] HINA, in order that (Marshall 939); the purport and aim of the message (Vincent 2.349); noun clauses introduced by HINA standing in apposition to a noun or pronoun and containing an explanation of the meaning of the noun or pronoun. This construction is very common in the writings of St John. The verb is always in the subjunctive mood (Nunn 108); the HINA clause is an indirect command (I. Marshall 189).
[ 87 ] AGAPOOMEN ALLEELOUS, we should love one another (Marshall 939); AGAPOOMEN is first person plural, present active subjunctive of AGAPAOO (Han 429); have a preference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of (Thayer 8).
[ 88 ] OU KATHOOS KAIN EEN, not as Cain was (Marshall 939); who is not in the Greek. The construction is irregular (Vincent 2.349); sometimes an expression may be condensed to such an extent that opposites are compared (Arndt 391).
[ 89 ] EK TOU PONEEROU, of the evil one (Marshall 939); literally, not as Cain was of the evil one (Vincent 2.349); Satan is mentioned as "the [or that] evil one" (Vine 1226); literally, not as Cain was from the evil one (I. Marshall 189).
[ 90 ] KAI ESPHAXEN TON ADELPHON AUTOU, and slew the brother of him (Marshall 939); ESPHAXEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of SPHAZOO (Han 429); the verb occurs only in John, and only here outside of the Apocalypse. Originally, to slay by cutting the throat . . . thence, generally, to slay or kill (Vincent 2.350); slew, especially of victims for sacrifice [akin to SPHAGEE, slaughter], used of taking human life (Vine 1053); often used of violent killing [Re 6:4, 9] (I. Marshall 189).
[ 91 ] KAI CHARIN TINOS ESPHAXEN AUTON, and for the sake of what slew he him? (Marshall 939); ESPHAXEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of SPHAZOO (Han 429); literally, on account of what. CHARIN for the sake of, an account of, is elsewhere placed after the genitive [see Eph 3:1, 14; 1Ti 5:14; Ga 3:19] (Vincent 2.350).
[ 92 ] HOTI TA ERGA AUTOU PONEERA HEEN, because the works of him evil was [were] (Marshall 939); deeds, accomplishment . . . of the deeds of men, exhibiting a consistent moral character, referred to collectively (Arndt 308).
[ 93 ] TA DE TOU ADELPHOU AUTOU DIKAIA, but the [works] of the brother of him righteous (Marshall 939); upright, righteous, virtuous, keeping the commands of God (Thayer 148).
[ 94 ] MEE THAUMAZETE, not marvel ye (Marshall 939); THAUMAZETE is second person plural, present active indicative or imperative of THAUMAZOO (Han 429); [do not] wonder at, marvel (Vine 717); you must not be surprised (Williams); wonder, be surprised at (Arndt 352); literally, stop marveling (Harrison 1473).
[ 95 ] It is interesting that for a while the early church enjoyed the favor of all the people (Ac 2:47).
[ 96 ] ADELPHOI, brothers (Marshall 939); the only occurrence of this mode of address in the Epistle (Vincent 3.350).
[ 97 ] EI MISEI HUMAS HO KOSMOS, if hates you the world (Marshall 939); MISEI is third person singular, present active indicative of MISEOO (Han 429); indicative mood, pointing to the fact as existing: if the world hate you, as it does (Vincent 2.350); hates, used especially of malicious and unjustifiable feelings towards others, whether towards the innocent or by mutual animosity (Vine 528).
[ 98 ] HEEMEIS OIDAMEN, we know (Marshall 939); OIDAMEN is first person plural, perfect active indicative of OIDA (Han 429); emphatic; we as distinguished from the world (Vincent 2.350); we know as a fact (Stott 145).
[ 99 ] HOTI METABEBEEKAMEN, that we have removed (Marshall 939); METABEBEEKAMEN is first person plural perfect active indicative of METABAINOO (Han 429); literally, have passed over (Vincent 2.350); passed over from one place to another [META, implying change], is translated "we have passed out of" in 1 John 3:14, as to the change from death to life (Vine 837); passed over from one place to another, removed, departed . . . metaphorically (Thayer 404).
[ 100 ] EK TOU THANATOU, out of the death (Marshall 939); literally, out of the death. The article marks it as one of the two spheres in which men must be: death or life (Vincent 2.350); Adam died on the day he disobeyed God . . . from which, however, those who believe in Christ are delivered, John 5:24; 1 John 3:14; the separation of man from God; Adam died on the day he disobeyed God, Genesis 2:17, and hence all mankind are born in the same spiritual condition, Romans 5:12, 14, 17, 21, from which, however, those who believe in Christ are delivered, John 5:24; 1 John 3:14. Death is the opposite of life; it never denotes non-existence. As spiritual life is "conscious existence in communion with God," so spiritual death is "conscious existence in separation from God" (Vine 268); metaphorically, the loss of that life which alone is worthy of the name, that is, the misery of soul arising from sin, which begins on earth but lasts and increases after the death of the body (Thayer 283). The careful reader of the footnote will note Vine's bias toward the unacceptable doctrine of original sin.
[ 101 ]We is emphasized as in the Greek sentence.
[ 102 ] EIS TEEN ZOOEEN, into the life (Marshall 939); into (Vincent 2.350); life real and genuine, . . . a life active and vigorous, devoted to God, blessed, the portion even in this world of those who put their trust in Christ, but after the resurrection to be consummated by new accessions [among them a more perfect body], and to last forever [the writers of the OT have anticipated the conception, in their way, by employing [a Hebrew word] to denote a happy life and every kind of blessing (Thayer 273).
[ 103 ] HOTI, because (Marshall 939); the sign of having passed into life; not the ground (Vincent 2.351).
[ 104 ] AGAPOOMEN TOUS ADELPHOUS, we love the brothers (Marshall 939); AGAPOOMEN is first person plural, present active subjunctive or indicative of AGAPAOO (Han 430); the only occurrence of the phrase. Elsewhere, love one another, or love his brother (Vincent 2.351).
[ 105 ] HO MEE AGAPOON, the [one] not loving (Marshall 939); AGAPOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of AGAPAOO (Han 430); omit his brother (Vincent 2.351); literally, the not loving man (Woods 279); some translations add "his brother" because of a textual variation, or possibly supplied from verse 15.
[ 106 ] MENEI EN TOO THANATOO, remains in death (Marshall 939); MENEI is third person singular, present active indicative of MENOO (Han 430); separation from God (Vine 268); a state into which one has settled down permanently (Woods 279).
[ 107 ] PAS HO MISOON TON ADELPHON AUTOU, everyone hating the brother of him (Marshall 939); MISOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of MISEOO (Han 430); hates, used especially of malicious and unjustifiable feelings towards others, whether towards the innocent or by mutual animosity; he who hates his brother is called a murderer; for the sin lies in the inward disposition, of which the act is only the outward expression (Vine 528); anyone who keeps on hating his brother (Williams).
[ 108 ] ANTHROOPOKTONOS ESTIN, a murderer is (Marshall 939); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 430); manslayer. Only here and John 8:44, of the devil (Vincent 2.351); an adjective, literally, "manslaying," used as a noun, a manslayer, murderer [ANTHROOPOS a man, KTEINOO to slay], used of one who hates his brother, and who, being a murderer, has not eternal life (Vine 764).
[ 109 ] See John 8:44; compare Woods 280.
[ 110 ] KAI OIDATE HOTI PAS ANTHROOPOKTONOS OUK, and ye know that every murderer not (Marshall 939); OIDATE is second person plural, perfect active indicative of OIDA (Han 430); one who hates his brother, being a murderer, has not eternal life (Vine 764).
[ 111 ] Gladstone, Homer and the Homeric Age, 2.436, from Vincent 2.351.
[ 112 ] ECHEI ZOOEEN AIOONION EN AUTOO MENOUSAN, has life eternal in him remaining (Marshall 939); MENOUSAN is the present active participle, accusative singular feminine of MENOO (Han 430); [some scholars] maintain that ZOOEE AIOONIOS everywhere even in John's writings refers to life after the resurrection; but in this way they are compelled not only to assume a prophetic use of the perfect in the saying EK TOU THANATOU METABEBEEKENAI EIS TOU ZOOEEN [Joh 5:24; 1Jo 3:14], but also to interpret the common phrase ECHEI ZOOEEN AIOONION as meaning he has eternal life as his certain portion though as yet only in hope, as well as to explain ZOOEEN AIOONION OUK ECHEIN EN HEAUTOO MENOUSAN [1Jo 3:15] of the hope of eternal life (Thayer 274).
[ 113 ] EGNOOKAMEN, we have known (Marshall 940); EGNOOKAMEN is first person plural perfect active indicative of GINOOSKOO (Han 430); know (Vincent 2.351); the Greek perfect tense denotes the present state resultant upon a past action (Machen 452).
[ 114 ] TEEN AGAPEEN, love (Marshall 940); omit the italics of the KJV of God, and render, hereby know we love (Vincent 2.351); in respect of AGAPAOO as used of God, it expresses the deep and constant love and interest of a perfect Being towards entirely unworthy objects, producing and fostering a reverential love in them towards the Giver, and a practical love towards those who are partakers of the same, and a desire to help others to seek the Giver (Vine 693).
[ 115 ] EN TOUTOO . . . HOTI, by this . . . because (Marshall 940).
[ 116 ] EKEINOS HUPER HEEMOON TEEN PSUCHEEN AUTOU ETHEEKEN, that one on behalf of us the life of him laid down (Marshall 940); ETHEEKEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of TITHEEMI (Han 430); laying down one's life (Vine 648); aorist tense; literally, take off, remove . . . lay down or give (up) one's life (Arndt 816).
[ 117 ] KAI HEEMEIS OPHEILOMEN, and we ought (Marshall 940); OPHEILOMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of OPHEILOO (Han 430); [from OPHEILOO to owe] (Vine 820); be obligated, with infinitive following, one must, one ought (Arndt 598).
[ 118 ] TAS PSUCHAS THEINAI, the [our] lives to lay down (Marshall 940); THEINAI is the second aorist active infinitive of TITHEEMI (Han 430); laying down one's life, of Christ's followers on behalf of others (Vine 648); literally, take off, remove . . . lay down or give (up) one's life (Arndt 816); lay down, give up one's life (Thayer 623).
[ 119 ] HUPER TOON ADELPHOON, on behalf of the brothers (Marshall 940).
[ 120 ] HOS D' AN ECHEE, whoever has (Marshall 940); ECHEE is third person singular, present active subjunctive of ECHOO (Han 430).
[ 121 ] TON BION TOU KOSMOU, the means of life of the world (Marshall 940); the world's goods; BIOS means that by which life is sustained, resources, wealth (Vincent 2.352); livelihood, living, means of living (Vine 496).
[ 122 ] KAI THEOOREE, and beholds (Marshall 940); THEOOREE is third person singular, present active subjunctive of THEOOREOO (Han 430); third person singular present active subjunctive (Han 430); deliberately contemplates (Vincent 2.352); [from THEOOROS a spectator] used of one who looks at a thing with interest and for a purpose, usually indicating the careful observation of details (Vine 106); be a spectator, look at, observe, perceive, see [with physical eyes] (Arndt 360).
[ 123 ] TON ADELPHON AUTOU CHREIAN ECHONTA, the brother of him need having (Marshall 940); ECHONTA may be the present active participle, accusative singular masculine or nominative plural neuter of ECHOO (Han 430); literally, having need (Vincent 2.352); denotes a need, in such expressions as "there is a need;" or "to have need of" something (Vine 777).
[ 124 ] KAI KLEISEE TA SPLANCHNA AUTOU, and shuts the bowels of him (Marshall 940); KLEISEE is third person singular, first aorist active subjunctive of KLEIOO (Han 430); his compassion (Vincent 2.352); shuts up, metaphorically, of compassion (Vine 1039); figuratively, of the seat of the emotions, in our usage heart. . . close one's heart to someone in need (Arndt 763); see note on 1Peter 3:8.
[ 125 ] AP' AUTOU, from him (Marshall 940).
[ 126 ] POOS HEE AGAPEE TOU THEOU MENEI EN AUTOO; how the love of God remains in him? (Marshall 940); MENEI is third person singular, present active indicative of MENOO (Han 430); abide, of qualities, the love of God (Vine 2).
[ 127 ] TEKNIA, little children (Marshall 940); little child, diminutive of TEKNON, used figuratively in the NT, and always in the plural. . . . a term of affection by a teacher to his disciples under circumstances requiring a tender appeal, for example, of Christ to the Twelve just before his death; the Apostle John used it in warning believers against spiritual dangers (Vine 179; see note on 1Jo 2:1; Joh 1:12).
[ 128 ] MEE AGAPOOMEN LOGOO, let us not love in word (Marshall 940); AGAPOOMEN is first person plural, present active indicative or subjunctive of AGAPAOO (Han 430); the expression of thought (Vine 1241).
[ 129 ] MEEDE TEE GLOOSSEE, nor in the tongue (Marshall 940); the tongue, as an organ of speech (Vine 1154).
[ 130 ] ALLA EN ERGOO KAI ALEETHEIA, but in work and truth (Marshall 940); when [ERGOO] is used in the sense of a deed or act, the idea of working is stressed (Vine 275); deed, action (Arndt 307).
[ 131 ] EN TOUTOO GNOOSOMETHA, by this we shall know (Marshall 940); GNOOSOMETHA is first person plural, future middle indicative of GINOOSKOO (Han 430).
[ 132 ] HOTI EK TEES ALEETHEIAS ESMEN, that of the truth we are (Marshall 940); ESMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 430); truth (Vine 1171).
[ 133 ] KAI PEISOMEN TEEN KARDIAN HEEMOON, and shall persuade the heart of us (Marshall 940); PEISOMEN is first person plural, future active indicative of PEITHOO (Han 430); two renderings are possible; the primitive meaning persuade [Ac 19:26; 27:4; 2Co 5:11]; or the secondary and consequent sense, assure, quiet, conciliate [Mt 28:14]. Render assure (Vincent 2.352); persuade, rendered "assure" in 1 John 3:19, where the meaning is that of confidence toward God consequent upon loving in deed and in truth (Vine 77); literally, persuade or tranquilize (Harrison 1474); [in this context, the heart is] the conscience (Vine 537); of a soul conscious of good or bad deeds [our conscience] (Thayer 326).
[ 134 ] EMPROSTHEN AUTOU, before him (Marshall 940); emphatic, the order being, before Him we shall assure our heart (Vincent 2.352).
[ 135 ] HOTI EAN, that if (Marshall 940); whereinsoever (Harrison 1474; Vincent 2.352).
[ 136 ] KATAGINOOSKEE HEEMOON HE KARDIA, blames [us] of us the heart (Marshall 940); KATAGINOOSKEE is third person singular, present active subjunctive of KATAGINOOSKOO (Han 430); a very difficult passage . . . render shall assure our heart before Him whereinsoever our heart condemn us, because God is greater than our heart; only three times in the NT, here, in verse 21 and Galatians 2:11 . . . the internal judgment of conscience (Vincent 2.352, 353); of self-condemnation due to an exercise of heart (Vine 214).
[ 137 ] HOTI, that (Marshall 940); [the translation of] this second HOTI does not appear in the KJV. It is a conjunction (Vincent 2.353).
[ 138 ] MEIZOON ESTIN HO THEOS, greater is God (Marshall 940); [either] if our heart condemn, how much more God, who is greater than our heart . . . [or] when our heart condemns us we shall quiet it with the assurance that we are in the hands of a God who is greater than our heart--who surpasses man in love and compassion no less than in knowledge. This latter sense better suits the whole drift of the discussion (Vincent 2.353); the comparative degree of MEGAS great] (Vine 504).
[ 139 ] TEES KARDIAS HEEMOON, [than] the heart of us (Marshall 940).
[ 140 ] KAI GINOOSKEI PANTA, and knows all things (Marshall 940); GINOOSKEI is third person singular present active indicative of GINOOSKOO (Han 430); has come to know, knows (Arndt 161).
[ 141 ] AGAPETOI, beloved (Marshall 940); the affectionate address is suggested by the preceding thought of tormenting self-accusation (Vincent 2.353).
[ 142 ] EAN HEE KARDIA MEE KATAGINOOSKEE, if the [our] heart does not blame [us] (Marshall 940); KATAGINOOSKEE is third person singular, present active subjunctive of KATAGINOOSKOO (Han 430); the conscience; to know something against [KATA against, GINOOSKOO to know by experience], hence, to think ill of, to condemn, is said, in Galatians 2:11, of Peter's conduct [RV or ASV, "stood condemned"], he being self-condemned as the result of an exercised and enlightened conscience, and condemned in the sight of others; so of self-condemnation due to an exercise of heart, 1 John 3:20, 21 (Vine 214, 537); accuse, condemn (Thayer 330); condemn, convict (Arndt 409).
[ 143 ] PARRHEESIAN ECHOMEN, confidence we have (Marshall 940); ECHOMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of ECHOO (Han 430); boldness (Vincent 2.354); the absence of fear in speaking boldly; hence, confidence, cheerful courage, boldness, without any connection necessarily with speech (Vine 130); literally, boldness or freedom in speaking (Harrison 1474); perfect confidence (Williams).
[ 144 ] PROS TON THEON, with God (Marshall 940); to God (Williams); metaphorically, of mental direction, with words denoting desires and emotions of the mind, to towards (Thayer 542).
[ 145 ] KAI HO EAN AITOOMEN, and whatever we ask (Marshall 940); AITOOMEN is first person plural, present active subjunctive of AITEOO (Han 430); first person plural present active subjunctive (Han 430); ask [distinguished from EROTAOO to ask on an equal footing], more frequently suggests the attitude of a suppliant, the petition of one who is lesser in position than he to whom the petition is made . . . 1 John 3:22; 5:14, 15 [twice], 16 (Vine 71).
[ 146 ] The passage in Luke 11:9, 10 includes, but is not limited to, prayer to God.
[ 147 ] LAMBANOMEN AP' AUTOU, we receive from him (Marshall 940); LAMBANOMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of LAMBANOO (Han 430); with reference to petitioning God (Vine 71).
[ 148 ] HOTI TEEROUMEN, because we keep (Marshall 940); TEEROUMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of TEEREOO (Han 430); first person plural present active indicative (Han 430); note the combination of keep and do. Watchful discernment and habitual practice (Vincent 2.354); observe, give heed to, as of keeping commandments (Vine 617); because we practice (Williams)
[ 149 ] TAS ENTOLAS AUTOU, the commandments of him (Marshall 940); denotes, in general, injunctions, charges, precepts, commandments (Vine 202); universally, of the commandments of God, especially as promulgated in the Christian religion (Thayer 218).
[ 150 ] KAI TA POIOUMEN, and the things we do (Marshall 940); POIOUMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of POIEOO (Han 430); and do (Williams).
[ 151 ] ARESTA, pleasing (Marshall 940); pleasing, agreeable (Vine 861); [the things that are] pleasing (Vincent 2.172).
[ 152 ] ENOOPION AUTOU, before him (Marshall 940); accentuates the thought of the divine regard (Vincent 2.354); [from EN in, and OPS the eye], the neuter of the adjective ENOPIOS, and used prepositionally . . . in the approving sight of God (Vine 100, 1042).
[ 153 ] KAI HAUTEE ESTIN HEE ENTOLEE AUTOU, and this is the commandment of him (Marshall 940); denotes, in general, an injunction, charge, precept, commandment (Vine 202).
[ 154 ] HINA PISTEUSOOMEN TOO ONOMATI, in order that we should believe the name (Marshall 940); PISTEUSOOMEN is first person plural, first aorist active subjunctive of PISTEUOO (Han 430); [name] is used for all that a name implies, of authority, character, rank, majesty, power, excellence, etc., of everything that the name covers . . . representing the authority of Christ (Vine 772); literally, believe the name (Harrison 1474); noun clauses introduced by HINA standing in apposition to a noun or pronoun and containing an explanation of the meaning of the noun or pronoun. This construction is very common in the writings of St John. The verb is always in the subjunctive mood (Nunn 108); John here uses PISTEUOO with the dative, which usually signifies believing that something is trustworthy and true rather than making an act of personal committal (usually expressed by PISTEUOO EIS) . . . The present verse is an exception to the rule, in that commitment to Jesus is clearly meant (I. Marshall 201).
[ 155 ] TOO ONOMATI TOU HUIOU AUTOU 'IEESOU CHRISTOU, of the Son of him Jesus Christ (Marshall 941).
[ 156 ] KAI AGAPOOMEN ALLEELOUS, and love one another (Marshall 941); AGAPOOMEN may be first person plural, present active subjunctive or indicative of AGAPAOO (Han 430).
[ 157 ] EDOOKEN ENTOLEEN HEEMIN, as he gave commandment to us (Marshall 941); EDOOKEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of DIDOOMI (Han 430).
[ 158 ] KAI HO TEEROON TAS ENTOLAS AUTOU, and the [one] keeping the commandments of him (Marshall 941); TEEROON is the present active participle nominative singular masculine of TEEREOO (Han 430); observes, gives heed to, as of keeping commandments (Vine 617).
[ 159 ] EN AUTOO MENEI KAI AUTOS EN AUTOO, in him remains and he in him (Marshall 941); MENEI is third person singular, present active indicative of MENOO (Han 430); "Therefore let God be a home to thee, and be thou the home of God: abide in God, and let God abide in thee" (Bede, quoted by Vincent 2.354); Christians are said MENEIN EN TOO THEOO, to be rooted as it were in him, knit to him by the spirit they have received from him, and conversely Christ or God is said MENEIN [to abide] in one (Thayer 399).
[ 160 ] KAI EN TOUTOO GINOOSKOMEN, and by this we know (Marshall 941); GINOSKOOMEN is first person plural present active indicative of GINOOSKOO (Han 430).
[ 161 ] HOTI MENEI EN HEEMIN, that he remains in us (Marshall 941).
[ 162 ] EK TOU PNEUMATOS HOU HEEMIN EDOOKEN, by the Spirit whom to us he gave (Marshall 941); EDOOKEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of DIDOOMI (Han 430); the first mention of the Spirit in the Epistle. Never found with Holy in the Epistles or Apocalypse (Vincent 2.354).
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