Peter's First Letter
Chapter Two
Copyright ©2003, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington
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Peter begins this chapter[ 1 ] with an exhortation to lay aside malice and several other sins. He explains that Christians as living stones are to grow into a holy temple. Jesus is the chief cornerstone. The NT church is a chosen generation with a purpose of proclaiming God's praises. Again Peter urges righteous living before the world, together with submission to civil government. Slaves are to be submissive to their masters. The chapter closes with a discussion of the great and marvelous example of Christ (see chart 1 PETER 2 OUTLINE).

  1. As newborns desire milk of word (2:1-3).
  2. Living stones, spiritual priesthood (2:4-12).
  3. Submit to rulers (2:13-20).
  4. Christ our example (2:21-25).


2:1-3 Therefore, laying aside all malice, all guile, hypocrisy, envy, and all evil speaking, 2 as newborn babes, desire the pure milk of the word, that you may grow thereby, 3 if indeed you have tasted that the Lord is gracious.

Therefore [so, wherefore, then].[ 2 ] With "therefore" Peter begins a new segment of thought. In chapter 1, he wrote of the eternal inheritance and the interest prophets had in it. He also wrote of holy living, of redemption by the blood of Christ and of the new birth by imperishable seed. Therefore, because of what he wrote in chapter 1, he begins this exhortation on holy living. He commences by exhorting his readers to lay aside malice, guile, hypocrisy, envy and slander (see chart FIVE THINGS TO PUT ASIDE).

(1Pe 2:1)
  1. All malice [ill-will, evil in general].
  2. All guile [deceit].
  3. Hypocrisy [pretended holiness].
  4. Envy [wishing others harm to gain something].
  5. All evil speaking [slander].


Laying aside [put, putting, away].[ 3 ] The Greek word for "laying aside" is elsewhere used as taking off clothes.[ 4 ] Here the picture is the removal and ridding oneself of foul and evil things. Each believer is actively putting aside the sin in his life. Note that malice and envy are mental. The Christian regulates his thoughts as well as his words and actions. The doctrine that says one is to relax and let the Holy Spirit transform the life without personal effort is false.

(1Pe 2:1)
  1. Put aside the works of darkness (Ro 13:12).
  2. Put off the old man which grows corrupt according to the deceitful lusts (Eph 4:22).
  3. Putting away lying (Eph 4:25; see verse 31).
  4. Put off all these: anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy language out of your mouth (Col 3:8).
  5. Laying aside all malice, all guile, hypocrisy, envy, and all evil speaking (1Pe 2:1).

(1Pe 2:1)
  1. Receiving the end of your faith (1Pe 1:9).
  2. Knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things (1Pe 1:18).
  3. Laying aside all malice, etc. (1Pe 2:1).
  4. Coming to Him as to a living stone (1Pe 2:4).
  5. Minister it to one another (1Pe 4:10).
  6. Rejoice to the extent that you partake of Christ's sufferings (1Pe 4:13).
  7. Casting all your care upon Him (1Pe 5:7).

All.[ 5 ] All evil is to be put aside. There is no compromise. Do not put away a little, some or most, but all of it.

Malice [wickedness, all wickedness].[ 6 ]Y The English word "malice" sometimes refers to spite, ill-will or a bad feeling toward another. In the Greek, however, the word is more general.[ 7 ] It embraces any desire or inclination to do that which is harmful, illegal or bad.

All guile [and all guile, deceit].[ 8 ] Subtlety, deception, two-facedness, fraud and trickery are wrong (see Ro 1:29; 2Co 12:16; 1Th 2:3). When Christians put aside guile they become honest, ethical, forthright, loyal and sincere. A Christian has the same standard of righteousness regardless of what crowd he is with. He is honest and his speech forthright before the face of, and behind the back of, friends and enemies alike. He or she talks and behaves the same way at home that as before elders of the church.

Hypocrisy [and hypocrisies, insincerity].[ 9 ] Hypocrisy is pretentiousness. Those who "join the church" for social or financial reasons are hypocrites but not the only ones. All affected, insincere behavior is hypocrisy and must be laid aside (see Mt 23:28; Ga 2:13; 1Ti 4:2).

Envy [and envy, envies].[ 10 ] Envy is akin to hate (see Mt 27:18; Mk 15:10; Ro 1:29; Php 1:15; 1Ti 6:4; Tit 3:3). It is displeasure at the accomplishment, success, prosperity or recognition of someone else. Love wishes only good for others, even enemies.

Envy is the opposite of that. When one is envious, he feels discomfort or resentment because of the good or good fortune of others. Some of the apostles envied each other and worried about who would be the greatest but I do not think Paul ever did. That was because he crucified self with Christ (Ga 2:20). In so doing, he had crucified the flesh with its passions and desires (Ga 5:24).

And all evil speaking [and all evil speakings, slander].[ 11 ] Slander is evil speaking against another and often is the fruit of envy. How can one have a sincere love for the brethren and, at the same time, speak against them (see 1Pe 1:22)? Slander may take the form of libel, character assassination or false accusation. Gossip may fall into the same category.[ 12 ] Hearsay and scandal hurts the church. Innocent victims as well as its perpetrators suffer. Hear Paul:

For I fear lest, when I come, I shall not find you such as I wish, and that I shall be found by you such as you do not wish; lest there be contentions, jealousies, outbursts of wrath, selfish ambitions, backbitings, whisperings, conceits, tumults (2Co 12:20; compare chapter 13).


[2:2] As newborn babes [like newborn babies].[ 13 ] Regardless of their state of growth, the Christians to whom Peter wrote were to be as free from the evils listed as newborn babies.[ 14 ] In addition, like babies, they are to desire the milk of the word. They are not necessarily beginners in the service of Christ. They are to be as "newborn babes" in that they are to be free from the above-mentioned evils.

An infant knows how to let its mother know when it is hungry. Nursing mothers know how the babe works at satisfying that hunger! Surely, not all of Peter's readers were new Christians. He does not say they were. He used this metaphor to show what kind of spiritual hunger every Christian should have. Every believer is to have the healthy appetite of a baby. A mature Christian never loses his or her initial hunger for righteousness.

(1Pe 2:2)
  1. To whom would He teach knowledge? . . . Those just weaned from milk? (Isa 28:9).
  2. Converted and become like children (Mt 18:3; compare Mk 10:14, 15).
  3. Begotten through the gospel (1Co 4:15).
  4. Born again (1Pe 1:3, 23).
  5. Born of God (1Jo 5:1).

(1Pe 2:2)
  1. Babes (1Pe 2:2).
  2. Stones (1Pe 2:4).
  3. Priests, royal priesthood (1Pe 2:4, 9).
  4. Sojourners and pilgrims (1Pe 2:11).
  5. Free men (1Pe 2:16).
  6. Bondservants of God (1Pe 2:16).
  7. Sheep (1Pe 2:25).


Desire [long for, desire earnestly].[ 15 ] The Greek expression for "desire" is more intense than the English translation may indicate. It implies an earnest desire, an intense craving, a strong yearning or a healthy hunger for the word of God (compare 2Co 9:14; Php 1:8; 2:26). The longing of a baby for its milk does not forever end after one feeding. The little one returns again and again for more nourishment. After the first feeding, a mother does not usually have to beg and coax a baby to return to the breast. May it always be so for Christians who desire and need spiritual food!

(1Pe 2:2)
  1. Desire the pure milk of the word (1Pe 2:2).
  2. Abstain from fleshly lusts (1Pe 2:11).
  3. Having conduct honorable (1Pe 2:12).
  4. Submit to every ordinance of man (1Pe 2:13).
  5. [Live] as free people (1Pe 2:15).
  6. Honor all people. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king (1Pe 2:17).
  7. Servants be submissive to masters (1Pe 2:18).

The pure [the sincere, which is without guile].[ 16 ] Pure, fresh, unadulterated, milk is both wholesome and good. The word of God is good and it is nourishing. It has the splendid properties of pure milk. Have you ever wondered if the milk in stores is adulterated or watered down? Probably not.[ 17 ] Evidently, some early false teachers were "walking in craftiness" and "handling the word of God deceitfully" (see note on 2Co 4:2). They were diluting or changing it. Christians must never long after doctrine that is mixed with the poison of false teaching. The word of God must not be mixed with the "commandments of men," "doctrines of demons" or contradictory traditions (see Mt 15:7-9; 1Ti 4:1-4).

Milk of the word [spiritual, mental, milk of the word].[ 18 ] Some versions and lexicons render this "spiritual milk." The rendering "spiritual service"[ 19 ] in Romans 12:1 is similar. The spiritual food by which Christians live and grow is "every word that proceeds from the mouth of God" (Mt 4:4). Some NT writers make a distinction between milk and solid food. Milk may denote elementary teachings (1Co 3:2; Heb 5:12). Solid food is for the mature (Heb 5:14).

That you may grow thereby [that by it ye may grow up, may grow by it].[ 20 ] A person begins the Christian life at the new birth (Joh 3:3-8; Ro 6:3-6; 2Co 5:17; Ga 3:26, 27; Eph 2:10). As a newborn baby he partakes of the pure, unmixed word of God and grows. Only those who partake of the truth in Scripture will grow spiritually. The purpose of the milk of the word is so that Christians may thrive, grow and mature, not be amused, coddled or entertained.

(1Pe 2:2)
  1. That you may grow (1Pe 2:2).
  2. Offer up spiritual sacrifices (1Pe 2:5).
  3. Proclaim the praises (1Pe 2:9).
  4. By your good works others may glorify God (1Pe 2:12).
  5. Patient suffering, commendable before God (1Pe 2:20).
  6. Follow His steps (1Pe 2:21).
  7. Live for righteousness (1Pe 2:24).

In respect to salvation [to, unto, salvation].[ 21 ] Only those who are faithful in the matter of spiritual growth may expect to receive eternal salvation (see Arndt in footnote). Jesus said, "He who endures to the end will be saved" (Mt 10:22; 24:13). He assures faithful Christians of heaven. "Be faithful until death and I will give you the crown of life" (Re 2:10).


[2:3] If indeed you have tasted [if you, ye, so be ye, for you, tasted].[ 22 ] This is one of the instances in the NT where the word "if" is used to mean "since." "Tasted" means "experienced" (compare Mt 16:28; Mk 9:1; Joh 8:52; Heb 2:9; 6:4, 5). Peter was aware that all Christians had tasted that the Lord is gracious. The mother of a new baby may need to be patient the first time she gets it to nurse. After the babe gets the initial taste of the milk, there is usually no trouble in getting him to feed. After he first tastes the milk, he wants more. The initial taste of God's goodness in salvation excites within Christians a desire to study and practice the word. The first-century saints, as well as all other Christians, have tasted "that the Lord is gracious." The taste makes them long for the word (verse 2).

Oh, taste and see that the LORD is good; blessed is the man who trusts in Him! (Ps 34:8).

That the Lord is gracious [the kindness of the Lord, that the Lord is good].[ 23 ] The Lord is good. He is gracious and kind. His goodness relates to salvation. Paul wrote to Titus of the appearing of Christ.

But when the kindness and the love of God our Savior toward man appeared, 5 not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to His mercy He saved us, through the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit (Tit 3:4, 5; compare Ro 2:4).

Some have been deceived into thinking God's ways must be detrimental to their enjoyment and well-being. Not so. Well, I suppose His ways do bring misery to half-hearted, undedicated, fearful Christians. But those who live close to Him experience joy beyond measure. When one realizes that "the Lord is gracious" and His will is only for his good, a real desire to learn more of His word is created. Not only that, but there develops a passion to put it into daily practice.

The kindness of the Lord is mentioned as a motivation to offer spiritual sacrifices (verse 5). It provides a dynamic to abstain from evil and perform good deeds before others (verses 11, 12). God's gracious kindness is never an excuse for laziness or sin.


2:4, 5 Coming to Him as to a living stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God and precious, 5 you also, as living stones, are being built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.

Coming to Him [come, continue coming, unto whom coming].[ 24 ] A magnificent temple is being built, the first and most important part of which is a magnificent corner-stone. People are coming to Christ in order to be saved (see Mt 11:28-30). Obedient believers are continually coming to Him in worship. They are part of the glorious temple of which He is an indispensable portion. They lean upon Him for strength and support.

(1Pe 2:4)
  1. In Him was life (Joh 1:4).
  2. Life in Himself (Joh 5:26).
  3. The resurrection and the life (Joh 11:25).
  4. The way, the truth and the life (Joh 14:6).
  5. Life and immortality to light (2Ti 1:10).
  6. The life was manifested (1Jo 1:2).
  7. He who has the Son has life (1Jo 5:12).


As to a living stone [to, as unto, that, the Living Stone].[ 25 ] Christ was the living, spiritual Rock [PETRA] from which the Israelites drank (see 1Co 10:4). The living Christ is presented here as a large corner stone, chosen, living and precious (verse 7). He is living because He has been raised from the dead to die no more (Ro 6:9; Re 1:18). He is living because He gives life to believers (see 1Co 15:45; chart CHRIST, THE LIVING STONE).

Jesus gave Simon a new name, PETROS Peter, a stone. The meaning is a small unhewn stone as contrasted with Jesus the foundation or the huge corner stone..

Rejected indeed by men [disallowed, cast away indeed as worthless, of, by, people].[ 26 ] The word "rejected" signifies that, after examination, something was declined or repudiated. In a restaurant, spoiled food is thrown out because it is nauseating and disgusting. In a bank, counterfeit money is refused because it does not pass inspection. The figure is taken from the Psalms.

The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone (Ps 118:22).

The chief priests and elders of the Jews were the builders. Jesus was the stone (see Mt 21:42; Mk 12:10; Lu 20:17). Peter, in speaking of Christ to the rulers, elders and scribes, perhaps some of the same crowd to whom Jesus had spoken, said:

This is the "stone which was rejected by you builders, which has become the chief cornerstone" (Ac 4:11).

The builders "examined" Christ. They cast Him aside. They repudiated Him. Remember, that which is refused and cast aside by men may not be valueless in God's eyes.


But chosen by God [but with God, in God's sight, elect, but chosen of God].[ 27 ] Jesus was despised and rejected of men, but to God, He was choice, elect, chosen (see chart REJECTED BY MEN, CHOSEN OF GOD).

(1Pe 2:4)
  1. Nailed to cross but God raised Him (Ac 2:23, 24; 32, 33).
  2. Rejected by builders but became chief corner stone (Ac 4:11).
  3. Murdered but God exalted Him to His right hand (Ac 5:30, 31).
  4. Killed but God raised Him up (Ac 10:39, 40).

Jesus, Jesus, how I trust Him!
How I've proved Him o'er and o'er!
Jesus, Jesus, precious Jesus!
O for grace to trust Him more!
(William J. Kirkpatrick)

(1Pe 2:4)
  1. Chief among ten thousand (Song 5:10).
  2. The only Savior (Ac 4:12).
  3. No other foundation (1Co 3:11).
  4. All things loss that I may gain Christ (Php 3:8).
See chart B at 1 Peter 2:7.

And precious [precious, and precious with God].[ 28 ] The elected or chosen Stone (Christ) is precious above all others. His blood is precious (1Pe 1:19). The preciousness is for believers (verse 7). This gives a small insight into the mind of God which is far above man's (see Isa 55:8, 9). That which atones for man's sin and enables him to live eternally in heaven is precious and valuable in God's sight. The cost to Him was inestimable (see charts note on the PRECIOUSNESS OF CHRIST A and PRECIOUSNESS OF CHRIST B at verse 7). In God's sight, the corner-stone, is precious.

Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: "Behold, I lay in Zion a stone for a foundation, a tried stone, a precious cornerstone, a sure foundation; whoever believes will not act hastily (Isa 28:16).

[2:5] You also, as living stones [be, ye, yourselves, also, and, like living stones].[ 29 ] The metaphor of a house built of "living" stones is astonishing to some who think of the church as a literal building. In the present figure the church is a dwelling for God (compare Eph 1:22). The church is God's family and is made up of people who are His "called out ones." In a figurative sense only is the church a building, a temple.

Another aspect of the church of Christ as a building or temple is that the stones of it are shaped and prepared before being set in place. Not just any old stone picked up on the path or rock pile will do. Each stone must be readied for God's building ahead of time. This is done when a person hears the gospel, believes it, repents of sins, confesses the name of the Savior as Lord prior to being baptized into Him.

Everyone understands that members of the church are not literal stones, but living Christians. They are only pictured in figuratively as building stones in God's temple. Just as Christ was rejected, men may reject a good stone in God's temple. Men or women may unjustly reproach a faithful teacher, a godly elder or a quiet follower. Just remember that Christ too was rejected by men but accepted by God. If one's teaching is true and done in a loving manner, he has nothing to be ashamed of from those who ridicule. God values faithful service. Remember that Noah, Job and Daniel did not always have a crowd of followers with them either.

Are being built up [built, are built, up, into].[ 30 ] In verse 2, babes in Christ were growing in respect to salvation. Here, in the figure of living stones, they are being "built up." Jesus said to the disciples:

And I also say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it (Mt 16:18; compare 1Co 3:10-15; 1Ti 3:14, 15).[ 31 ].

Building up (edification) is stressed in the NT (see note on 1Co 14:26). The stones are built up into God's temple. They are useless lying around somewhere in the weeds. It is impossible to serve God faithfully and not be a Christian, a part of His church.

A spiritual house.[ 32 ] The spiritual temple of God is made up of spiritual people. Each one is a precious stone redeemed by precious blood (1Pe 1:18, 19).


A holy priesthood [to be, unto, for, an holy priesthood].[ 33 ] Have you ever had an interesting dream where the scenes changed frequently? Peter's writings are like that. The panorama changes from sinners sprinkled with blood (1Pe 1:2) to Christians as newborn babes (1Pe 1:3, 23; 2:2) and then as living stones (1Pe 2:5). In the same verse, the scene changes again and Christians are pictured as priests in God's temple offering up sacrifices. They are set apart, consecrated and holy (see notes on 1Pe 1:15, 16).


To offer up spiritual sacrifices [to offer spiritual sacrifices].[ 34 ] The main duty of OT priests was to offer sacrifices. The same is true of NT priests except that their offerings are unlike those offered in OT days. First of all, Christians present their bodies as "living sacrifices" (Ro 12:1). They offer sacrifices of praise and prayers in which they "proclaim the praises" of Christ (see verse 9), giving Him glory forever (Re 1:6). Their worship is continuous. If at all possible, they faithfully attend all local worship assemblies.

Therefore by Him let us continually offer the sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of our lips, giving thanks to His name (Heb 13:15).

When one is offering praise to God, it is sublime, glorious and thrilling. It never becomes boring, monotonous or tedious.

Acceptable to God [well pleasing to God].[ 35 ] The worship of Christians is acceptable to Him only if it is performed according to the revealed word. In fact, the only way man can determine whether anything is acceptable to God is by the Bible. Divinely authorized acts of worship please Him. Humanly-invented acts of worship are no more acceptable than offering "profane fire" or "strange fire" (see Le 10:1, 2; chart ACCEPTABLE NT WORSHIP).

(1Pe 2:5)
  1. Singing.
  2. Giving.
  3. Partaking of Lord's supper.
  4. Prayer.
  5. Reading/teaching word of God.

Through Jesus Christ [by Jesus Christ].[ 36 ] Acceptable worship must be offered through Christ (see Ac 4:11, 12; Col 3:17; 1Ti 2:5; Heb 7:25). Worship not done through Him is vain. Some "Christian pastors" have attempted to join with the Jews in prayer. In order not to offend they left off the name of Christ. Such Christ-denying compromises are unacceptable.


2:6 Therefore it is also contained in the Scripture, "Behold, I lay in Zion a chief cornerstone, elect, precious, and he who believes on Him will by no means be put to shame."

Therefore it is also contained in the Scripture [because it is, wherefore also it is, contained, for it stands, this also is found, in Scripture].[ 37 ] Everything recorded in Scripture is important. The OT contained a statement about a great and wonderful change that would occur in the future. The change had to do with the establishment of a new, spiritual temple. The prophecy Peter cites was contained in a particular passage, namely Isaiah 28:16.

Behold I lay in Zion [Behold, I am laying in Sion].[ 38 ] Zion was a hill in Jerusalem. It was to this hill that David brought the ark (2Sa 6:10-12). Eventually, Solomon built the temple on nearby Mount Moriah and moved the ark there. The new location was also called "Zion." Apparently, the name of the old location where was expanded to include the nearby mount where the temple was erected (see Isa 8:18; 18:7; 24:23; Joel 3:17; Mic 4:7). It was as if the original Mount Zion spread itself to join Mount Moriah and impart its own name to both mounts. Later, the term "Zion" was enlarged again to encompass the entire city of Jerusalem (see 2Ki 19:21; Ps 48; 69:35; 133:3; Isa 1:8). The Lord's house, His church, was to be established in Zion, that is, in Jerusalem.[ 39 ] Isaiah used Zion in this sense.

Now it shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the LORD'S house shall be established on the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow to it. 3 Many people shall come and say, "Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; he will teach us His ways, and we shall walk in His paths." For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem (Isa 2:2, 3).

Notice that the prophet used the word Zion and Jerusalem interchangeably (see Isa 2:3). However, there is a higher, spiritual sense in which Zion is used in Scripture. Spiritual Zion is the "mountain" where Christ reigns in heaven (see Ps 2:6; 110:1, 2; Heb 12:22).

(1Pe 2:6)
  1. The chief part of an ancient foundation.
  2. Joins two walls [Jews and Gentiles].
  3. Holds building together [unity].
  4. Juts out at corner [some stumble].

A chief cornerstone [a Stone, a cornerstone].[ 40 ] When Jacob blessed Joseph, he spoke of "the Stone of Israel":

But his bow remained in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the Mighty God of Jacob (From there is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel) (Gen 49:24).

It was Isaiah who made clear the function of "the Stone of Israel" as a corner-stone.

Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: "Behold, I lay in Zion a stone for a foundation,[ 41 ] a tried stone, a precious cornerstone, a sure foundation; whoever believes will not act hastily (Isa 28:16; see chart CORNER-STONE).

Elect [chosen].

Precious [and precious, a precious]. The foundation and chief corner-stone is Jesus Christ. He is elect, chosen and of great value.

And he who believes on Him [and the one believing, that believeth, in him].[ 42 ] Grammatically, the Greek AUTOO it, Him, may refer to the corner-stone (it) or to Christ (Him), who is represented by the corner-stone in the metaphor.[ 43 ] Either way, belief is in Christ, the precious stone.[ 44 ]

Will by no means be put to shame [will not be, shall not be, confounded].[ 45 ] In the corresponding OT passage (Isa 28:16), the KJV has "shall not make haste." The NKJV has "will not act hastily." It has been suggested that acting hastily may be an aggravated or nervous attitude characterizing one who is stampeded into a rash, foolhardy escape from threat or danger. An obedient believer has no need to be anxious.

Another view is of someone disappointed in another who simply walks away hurriedly and in shame. The context in one of the Psalms helps us understanding the meaning.

I cling to Your testimonies; O LORD, do not put me to shame! (Ps 119:31).

The psalmist trusted in the divine promises. He pleaded with God not to disappoint him at last. He was cleaving to His word and faithfully serving Him. The implication is that the Lord will not disappoint. "Now hope does not disappoint" (Ro 5:5). Peter uses the term "put to shame" in a similar way. He who believes in Christ, the precious corner-stone, will not be disappointed. God may be relied upon to keep all of His precious and magnificent promises through Christ (see 2Pe 1:4). Throughout the years, I have heard many prayers including words of trust: "If we have been found faithful until death, give us the crown of life." The faithful Christian will not be disheartened, dismayed or disappointed.


2:7, 8 Therefore, to you who believe, He is precious; but to those who are disobedient, "The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone," 8 and "A stone of stumbling and a rock of offense." They stumble, being disobedient to the word, to which they also were appointed.

Therefore. Peter refers back to the thought that Christ is the chief cornerstone together with the blessing on the believer.

(1Pe 2:7)
  1. The only foundation (1Co 3:11).
  2. Knowledge of Him a "sweet aroma" (2Co 2:16).
  3. All spiritual blessings in Him (Eph 1:3).
  4. All things loss for the excellence of the knowledge of Christ Jesus (Php 3:8).
See chart A at 1 Peter 2:4.

To you who believe [unto you, for you, who are believing, which, that, believe].[ 46 ] Charles B. Williams renders the phrase, "So to you who put your trust in Him the honor belongs." This is in line with the thought of Paul, who wrote that God "made us alive together with Christ" and "made us sit together in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus" (Eph 2:5, 6). Because of the Savior, Christians are chosen, royal and holy. Therefore, they "proclaim the praises of Him" (1Pe 2:9).

In the present passage, the plural pronoun "you" in Greek includes all believers. Jesus is precious to each and every one of them. Without Him there would be no Christians, no salvation. With Him, there can be hope for anyone. He is able to save "to the uttermost" those who draw near to God through Him (Heb 7:25).


He is precious [is the preciousness].[ 47 ] The Stone (Christ) is precious. Its value is priceless (see charts PRECIOUSNESS OF CHRIST A and B). Christ is a living stone, elect, precious (verse 4). Christians, as living stones share the preciousness. Christ is the high priest (Heb 2:17; 3:1; 4:14; 10:21). Christians, as priests, share His honor (see Re 1:6). He is the Son of God. In a general sense, so are Christians. He is the Bridegroom. The church of Christ is the bride. He shed His precious blood. Christians are redeemed by it. The preciousness of Christ is cherished by believers. It is gratefully shared by them.
But to those who are disobedient [but for those, but for such, but unto them, who do not believe, as disbelieve, which be, but to the, unbelievers].[ 48 ] Those who disbelieve the gospel are lost (Mk 16:16). Christ becomes a stone of stumbling to them, as He said:

He who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God (Joh 3:18).

John pointed out that:

He who believes in the Son has everlasting life; and he who does not believe the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him (Joh 3:36).

The stone which the builders rejected [the very stone which the builders disallowed, cast away as worthless].[ 49 ] The rejected stone was Jesus and the builders were the Jewish religious leaders.

The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone (Ps 118:22).

When Jesus, in the temple at Jerusalem, was speaking to the chief priests and the elders of the people, he cited the very passage Peter used (Ps 118:22). He added these words:

Therefore I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken from you and given to a nation bearing the fruits of it (Mt 21:43).

The chief priests and the Pharisees understood that Jesus was speaking about them. They, the "builders," had rejected Him (compare 1Pe 2:23, 36; 4:10). To those who are perishing, He is "an aroma of death leading to death" (2Co 2:16). To them, He is not a precious Savior to love but a judge to be feared (see 2Co 5:11; Heb 10:31).

Has become the chief cornerstone [the same is made, was made, this is become, head, the head, of the corner].[ 50 ] The chief corner-stone is the main foundation stone. It joins a building together and makes it strong. However, it usually sticks out on the side of a corner so that one who carelessly or hastily goes around the corner may stumble on it (see chart CORNER-STONE).

[2:8] And, A stone of stumbling [and A stone that will make men stumble].[ 51 ] Peter's quotation follows the Hebrew text of Isaiah 8:14:

He will be as a sanctuary, but a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense to both the houses of Israel, as a trap and a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem (compare also Ro 9:23).

The Greek word for "stumbling" may refer to the "trigger" of a trap or anything over which one might stumble or trip over. The pure life of Christ, together with His opposition to hypocrisy and ungodly traditions, became a stumbling block to some of the Jews. It prompted many religious leaders to reject Him. Some were convinced that He was a blasphemer and a Sabbath breaker worthy of death. Their false conceptions about Him amounted to unbelief. They refused to accept and follow His teachings. By rejecting Him, they stumbled.

And a rock of offense [a rock that makes, that will make, them fall, to stumble against].[ 52 ] Some of the religious Jews recoiled because Jesus failed to meet their opinion of what the Messiah should be like. It was hard to accept the idea that anyone scourged and crucified was more than just a common criminal deserving His punishment. Since they expected an earthly king, it was especially difficult to accept the crucified One as the Son of the Most High God. To hold these false conceptions about Him was a form of unbelief.

They stumble [who, for they, even to them, to those who, which, stumble].[ 53 ] In view of the fact that salvation is only in Christ (Ac 4:11, 12), stumbling over the Chief Corner-stone is much more serious than a stubbed toe. The injury of those who stumble is not trivial. It constitutes eternal ruin. "He who does not believe will be condemned" (Mk 16:16). On the other hand, those who have believed and have obeyed the Gospel have purified their souls and look toward eternal life in heaven.

Since you have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit in sincere love of the brethren, love one another fervently with a pure heart (1Pe 1:22; Ro 6:23; 1Ti 6:12, 19).

The great apostle Paul spoke of a different law in body members, waging war against the law of the mind (Ro 7:23). Christians carry on mental warfare in order not to live according to the lusts of the flesh but to the will of God (1Pe 4:1, 2).

Being disobedient to the word [being disobedient at, because they disobey, the word]. By and large the nation of Israel stumbled at Christ's Person, His teaching, His atoning Death and the Gospel relating thereto. All these were contrary to their ideas as of becoming righteous before God.[ 54 ]

But Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. 32 Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone (Ro 9:31, 32).

To which they also were appointed [as, whereunto also, to which also, they were destined to do, have been appointed, have disposed themselves].[ 55 ] People who have chosen unbelief are appointed to condemnation (see Mk 16:16; Joh 3:18; 2Th 2:12).


2:9, 10 But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, His own special people, that you may proclaim the praises of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light; 10 who once were not a people but are now the people of God, who had not obtained mercy but now have obtained mercy.

But you are a chosen generation [but ye are a chosen, an elect, race, people].[ 56 ] Christians are a chosen stock, strain or people. They are a different breed from the world. They have all been begotten of gospel seed and have been born again of water and the Spirit. The tribe into which they are born is so large that it is called a race. It is a spiritual race composed of people of all nationalities. It is a chosen race because God's grace and favor rest upon it.

A royal priesthood [a kingly priesthood].[ 57 ] Christians are noble. They are children of the King! They make up a royal priesthood that offers up sacrifices of praise for what their King has done and is doing for them. They proclaim His "praises" or "excellencies" by their daily living, their teaching and regular worship.

A holy nation [an holy nation].[ 58 ] The Israelites were God's nation in OT days. They were holy in that they were set apart from all other nations.

And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. These are the words which you shall speak to the children of Israel (Ex 19:6).

Modern Israel is not a holy nation. Most of the citizens claim to be atheists,[ 59 ] infidels or agnostics. Spiritual Israel, the church of Jesus Christ, is now God's holy nation. Just as faithful Jews were God's people in OT days, so faithful Christians are His people today (see Eph 1:14).

His own special people [God's own, a special, a peculiar, people, a people for a possession].[ 60 ] James remarked about the conversion of the Gentile household of Cornelius, saying:

Simon has declared how God at the first visited the Gentiles to take out of them a people for His name (Ac 15:14).

God was purifying for Himself "His own special people" (Tit 2:14). They became holy when they were purified by the blood of Christ (see Ac 20:28; 22:16). When the Hebrew writer said: "There remains therefore a rest for the people of God" he was not speaking about Jews in particular, but Christians (see Heb 4:9).

The Jews had been a people obtained or acquired by God. At one time, they were His possession.

Now therefore, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be a special treasure to Me above all people; for all the earth is Mine (Ex 19:5).

By and large, fleshly Israel failed to keep God's covenant. The prophets foretold the formation of the church, the people of God.

This people I have formed for Myself; they shall declare My praise (Isa 43:21).


That you may proclaim the praises of Him [that ye might set forth, show forth, should shew forth, declare, the wonderful deeds, the excellencies, the perfections, of him].[ 61 ] The backdrop for Peter's statement is in Isaiah:

Let them give glory to the LORD, and declare His praise in the coastlands (Isa 42:12; compare Septuagint).

This people I have formed for Myself; they shall declare My praise (Isa 43:21).

One great purpose and privilege of Christians is to glorify God (see note on 2Ti 2:15). They continuously praise the Savior in preaching, prayer and song (see chart PROCLAIMING PRAISES A and B).

(1Pe 2:9)
  1. Proclaiming the way of salvation (Ac 16:17).
  2. The One whom you worship without knowing, Him I proclaim to you (Ac 17:23).
  3. Proclaim light to the Jewish people and to the Gentiles (Ac 26:23).

(1Pe 2:9)
  1. The testimony of God (1Co 2:1).
  2. His death till He comes (1Co 11:26).
  3. In the midst of the assembly I will sing praise to You (Heb 2:12).
  4. That God is light and in Him is no darkness at all (1Jo 1:5).

You are worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power; for You created all things, and by Your will they exist and were created (Re 4:11).

Worthy of praise is Christ our Redeemer;
Worthy of glory, honor and pow'r!
Worthy of all our soul's adoration,
Worthy art Thou! . . . Worthy art Thou!
(Tillit S. Teddlie)

Who called you [who hath, has, called you]. Christians have been drawn by God's teaching. They are called by the gospel (see notes on Joh 6:44, 45; 2Th 2:14).

Out of darkness.[ 62 ] The domain of darkness is the dominion of Satan. Souls in darkness are not forgiven and have no eternal inheritance until they come into the light of Christ.

(1Pe 2:9)
  1. Will make darkness light before them (Isa 42:16).
  2. To open their eyes, in order to turn them from darkness to light (Ac 26:18).
  3. Delivered us from the power of darkness (Col 1:13).

Into His marvelous light [to his wonderful light].[ 63 ] The marvelous light of Christ is the dominion of God. The dominion of God is the same as the church of Christ, the kingdom of His beloved Son. Those entering into it receive forgiveness of sins. They are sanctified by faith and obedience to Christ. They enjoy the hope of an eternal inheritance among the saints.


[2:10] Who once were not a people [once you, who, which in time past, were, you were, no people].[ 64 ] Peter's readers were Gentiles, or predominately such. A correct understanding of a prophecy confirms this. Through Hosea the LORD said:

Yet the number of the children of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured or numbered. And it shall come to pass in the place where it was said to them, "You are not My people," there it shall be said to them, "You are sons of the living God" (Ho 1:10).

There is a lot of difficulty in matching the above Scripture with the Jews who, at one time, were God's people. Those who were not God's people but now are "sons of the living God" are none other than Gentiles who have obeyed the gospel of Christ.

But are now the people of God [but now you are God's people].[ 65 ] In case anyone still doubts that the people spoken here are Gentiles, hear Paul's application of the very OT passage quoted above:

As He says also in Hosea: "I will call them My people, who were not My people, and her beloved, who was not beloved." 26 And it shall come to pass in the place where it was said to them, "You are not My people," there they shall be called sons of the living God (Ro 9:25, 26; compare Isa 65:1; Ho 2:23).

Who had not obtained mercy [you had not, which had not, once you had not, received mercy, who were not enjoying mercy].[ 66 ] Peter quotes additional words from Hosea 1:10, the prophecy about Gentiles who had not at that time obtained mercy.

But now have obtained mercy [but now you have received, have found, mercy].[ 67 ] The mercy spoken of is that which brings forgiveness, salvation and undeserved honors in Christ.

This ends a major section of Peter's letter in which he has discussed mainly the relation of Christians to God. A variation of thought now begins. He begins to plead for a change of behavior for the aliens and pilgrims. At least in human terms they are considered to be sojourners. However, God has blessed them with His mercy and forgiveness. He has honored them as His own holy people (see verses 9, 10). Peter now pleads with them to abstain from fleshly lusts, to behave well among others, specifically the Gentiles. He instructs them to submit to authority and to follow the example of Christ.


2:11, 12 Beloved, I beg you as sojourners and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul, 12 having your conduct honorable among the Gentiles, that when they speak against you as evildoers, they may, by your good works which they observe, glorify God in the day of visitation.

Beloved [dearly beloved].[ 68 ]

I beg you as sojourners [I beseech, admonish, exhort, you, as aliens, as strangers].[ 69 ] Peter has previously addressed his readers as aliens (see 1Pe 1:1). Since their citizenship is in heaven, all Christians are aliens on the earth. They are set apart and were different from other earthlings. In 1 Peter 2:9, he calls them a royal priesthood and a holy nation. In the present verse, he again addresses them as aliens in a land not their own. He urges or beseeches them to abstain from fleshly lusts that were so common among men and women of the world.

And pilgrims [and exiles, sojourners].[ 70 ] "Pilgrims" are people who are sojourning in a strange place. The home country of Christians is heaven.

Abstain from fleshly lusts [to abstain from the passions of the flesh].[ 71 ] Paul exhorted the Romans and Galatians to abstain from fleshly lusts with these words:

But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to fulfill its lusts (Rom 13:14).

For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one another, so that you do not do the things that you wish (Gal 5:17).

And those who are Christ's have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires (Ga 5:24).

Many unconverted Gentiles lived in the lusts of their flesh, indulging "the desires of the flesh and of the mind" (Eph 2:3). Associated with their fleshly lusts were fornication, uncleanness, covetousness, filthiness, foolish talking and coarse jesting (Eph 5:3, 4).

Which war against the soul [that wage war against your soul].[ 72 ] The apostle pictures an aggressive army encamped and ready to wage war against Christians. The soldiers in that army are a battalion consisting of lusts. Make no mistake about it. Lusts of the flesh stand ready to do spiritual battle.


[2:12] Having your conduct honorable [maintain, let your, good conduct, conversation, behavior, manner of life, be seemly, honest, excellent].[ 73 ] It is not enough for a Christian's behavior to be average. It is to be excellent and honorable. Neighbors ought to be able to observe godly traits far above those others who are not Christians in the community.

Among the Gentiles.[ 74 ] Although some pagans may be surprised at the righteous behavior of God's people it is important what and how others think about Christians and how they judge them. Believers must behave in such a way that non-Christians have reason to respect them. Dear reader, when you are at work, at school, in the grocery lines and in the community does your behavior speak well of your Savior? Or do your actions and words cause people to think less of Him and His church?

(1Pe 2:12)
  1. Labeled as sect of the hated Jews.
  2. Would not burn incense to Emperor.
  3. Accused of cannibalism.
  4. Accused of dignifying slaves.
  5. Accused of hurting business.

(1Pe 2:12)
  1. Accused of immorality.
  2. Accused of dividing families.
  3. Accused of turning world upside down.
  4. Accused of acting contrary to Caesar.
  5. Accused of opposing prevailing religions.

That when they speak against you [so that, whereas, wherein, in which, in case, as to that, they slander you].[ 75 ] There seems to be a tendency everywhere for the Lord's people to be criticized. This is to be expected. Even Jesus was criticized. The Jews in Rome once gave Paul their impression of the church of Christ. They said, "Concerning this sect, it is known to us that it is spoken against everywhere" (Ac 28:22). The Gentiles reproached it also. One reason was because of the original association with the Jews who were generally disliked. Criticism of God's faithful people is never justified (compare 1Pe 4:15, 16). On the other hand, Christians should never deliberately stir up trouble against others (see Ro 12:18).

Kindness and patience go a long way in smoothing ruffled feathers. Persecution may be avoided by cautious and discreet diplomacy.

A soft answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger" (Pr 15:1).

By long forbearance a ruler is persuaded, and a gentle tongue breaks a bone (Pr 25:15).

Peter commanded Christians to put away "all evil speaking" (1Pe 2:1). They show respect to others. They "honor all people" (verse 17).

As evildoers [as wrongdoers].[ 76 ] Evildoers are punished by governmental authorities for their violations of civil or criminal law (1Pe 2:14; 4:15). Some Christians have been falsely accused and punished as criminals (see charts SLANDERING EARLY CHRISTIANS A and B). Even Jesus Christ was falsely charged with being an evildoer (Joh 18:30).

They may, by your good works [they may see, through, because of, the, your, good deeds, you do].[ 77 ] Good behavior is important. Peter has already admonished his readers concerning holiness in relation to God.

But as He who called you is holy, you also be holy in all your conduct (1Pe 1:15).

He now focuses upon conduct as an example before others. Good behavior is a part of faithfulness to God but it has a secondary purpose. It has a useful effect upon those who slander Christians. Those who observe the good conduct of the saints may eventually obey the gospel and glorify God.

Which they observe [which they behold, shall behold, themselves witnessing them].[ 78 ] Many unbelievers are Christian watchers.

Glorify God [and glorify God].[ 79 ]

Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works and glorify your Father in heaven (Mt 5:16).

In the day of visitation [on the day of visitation].[ 80 ] The "day of visitation" has given rise to many interpretations. It may only remotely allude to the judgment day. The word "day" may be taken figuratively. "Visitation" may mean blessing or inspection. For example, when unbelieving husbands observe the chaste behavior of their wives they are doing "visitation" in the sense used here (1Pe 3:2).

A day of visitation may occur anytime during a Christian's lifetime. It might happen during persecution. Some examples: When Jesus was crucified, for instance, the centurion gave his attention to the dying Savior and said, "Certainly this was a righteous man!" (Lu 23:47). Upon careful examination, pagans get the idea that Christians are really genuine servants of God. They recognize them as righteous men and women and, because of their example, glorify God. Some soldiers beholding the calm death of Christian martyrs, themselves turned and confessed their faith in Jesus Christ.

Some have suggested that the "day of visitation" is a day when God interferes with the affairs of men with a special blessing or punishment. He "visited" when Christ came to earth. He again "visited" when Jerusalem was destroyed. Regardless of the view one takes, the outcome is the same. The Gentiles will glorify God.[ 81 ]


2:13, 14 Therefore submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake, whether to the king as supreme, 14 or to governors, as to those who are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers and for the praise of those who do good.

Therefore submit yourselves [be subject, in subjection, submit yourselves, therefore, submit].[ 82 ] Christians are to obey civil laws except when they require an action contrary to the will of God (see Ac 4:19; 5:29).

Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God (Ro 13:1; compare Tit 3:1, 2).

To every ordinance of man [to every human institution].[ 83 ] Christians are to obey civil government regardless of whether democratic or totalitarian. At the time Peter wrote, the Roman government was tyrannical and corrupt.

For the Lord's sake [for the Lord, for the sake of the Lord].[ 84 ] Christians submit to civil government for the Lord's sake. There are two aspects of this. First, the Lord commanded civil obedience (see Mt 17:26, 27). Secondly, when Christians fail to submit to the laws of the land, they hold up the Savior and His church in a bad light.

Whether to the king as supreme [whether it be to the emperor, to a king, as in authority].[ 85 ] When Peter wrote, Nero, who would soon have Paul executed, was the Roman emperor. Nevertheless, he was to be obeyed. This is not to say that "The king can do no wrong." The OT is replete with accounts of wicked rulers. John the baptizer implicated Herod in adultery (Mt 14:4). Jesus implied that Pilate was guilty of sin (Joh 19:11).

[2:14] Or to governors [or unto rulers].[ 86 ] "Governors" is a general term that includes various rulers.

As to those who are sent by him [as sent, as unto them that are sent, by him].[ 87 ] The phrase "sent by him" limits the word "governors" (above). That is, the governors are officially delegated rulers or deputies who serve under heads of state.

For the punishment of evildoers [to punish, for vengeance on, those who do wrong].[ 88 ] Evildoers are punished by the civil government. God may punish criminals and evil-doers through the agency of civil government. Some lawbreakers are never caught by the authorities. Civil government itself may be deal out the persecution to Christians. God may use civil government to avenge them or He may not. Nevertheless, rest assured that evildoers will be punished. Persecuted Christians will be avenged!

And shall God not avenge His own elect who cry out day and night to Him, though He bears long with them? 8 I tell you that He will avenge them speedily. Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will He really find faith on the earth? (Lu 18:7, 8).

Beloved, do not avenge yourselves, but rather give place to wrath; for it is written, "Vengeance is Mine, I will repay," says the Lord (Ro 12:19).

And for the praise of those who do good [and praise, and to, and for praises, to them that do well, right, doing that which is good].[ 89 ] In addition to punishing wrong-doers, civil government has an obligation to lend approval to, commend and praise citizens who do right.


2:15, 16 For this is the will of God, that by doing good you may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men-- 16 as free, yet not using liberty as a cloak for vice, but as bondservants of God.

For this is the will of God [for it is, for so it is, because so is, God's will].[ 90 ] By the good behavior specified, the will of God is carried out. One objective of doing good, how minor it may seem, is to silence certain negative voices.

That by doing good [that with doing right, well-doing, doing that which is good].[ 91 ] Doing good in general is the same as obeying God's will. However, in the present verse, specifically it is submission to civil authorities. In other words, it is God's will that Christians practice good conduct toward the government and toward people general (see chart DOING RIGHT).

(1Pe 2:15)
  1. By doing good you may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men (1Pe 2:15).
  2. When you do good and suffer, if you take it patiently (1Pe 2:20).
  3. [Sarah's] daughters you are if you do good and are not afraid with any terror (1Pe 3:6).
  4. It is better, if it is the will of God, to suffer for doing good (1Pe 3:17).

You may put to silence [ye should, may, silence].[ 92 ] Evil men are to be "muzzled." They are to be "gagged" but not physically. They are to be restrained by the muzzle of the good conduct of Christians.

The ignorance.[ 93 ] In the present context, "ignorance" represents what is said or done because of ignorance. Thus "ignorance" is ignorant talk and ignorant deeds.

Of foolish men [of senseless people].[ 94 ] When foolish people talk against Christians it is a disgrace. The Greek article indicates that these were not foolish men in general but a special class who spoke out ignorantly against Christians. Today, it is considered politically correct to bash the religious right. Recently, I heard a talk show host[ 95 ] speaking of those who oppose abortion. He shouted into the microphone, "I hate 'em! I hate 'em! I hate em!"


[2:16] As free [live, act like, free men, people].[ 96 ] Christians are free in Christ. They are free from the OT law, free from sin and free from fear but they are not free to disobey God. They are not free to disregard civil law. They are not free to engage in the works of the flesh. In Galatians 5, there is a well-known verse that declares our freedom in Christ (Ga 5:1). Yet, in verse 7 of that same chapter Paul speaks of obeying the truth. Freedom, yes, but not freedom to disobey God.

Yet not using [yet without, and not, and not as, using, and not as having].[ 97 ]

Liberty [your freedom].[ 98 ] It has ever been the case that some misuse their freedom in Christ. Paul was falsely accused of doing evil that good may come (Ro 3:8). He asked the Romans Christians:

What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin that grace may abound? Certainly not! How shall we who died to sin live any longer in it? (Ro 6:1, 2).

Again he asked:

What then? Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace? Certainly not! (Ro 6:15).

As a cloak for vice [like, for, a cloak, a pretext, of, evil, maliciousness, wickedness, malice].[ 99 ]

For you, brethren, have been called to liberty; only do not use liberty as an opportunity for the flesh, but through love serve one another (Ga 5:13).

Some have put forward an undue emphasis on grace, implying that it allows and condones indolence, denominational error and even moral sin. Others use false doctrines as a cover-up for wickedness. The doctrine of "once in grace always in grace" has become an excuse for sin. The same is true of teachings about purgatory, no hell and the AD 70 theory.

But as bondservants of God [but as the, but live as, servants of God, God's bondmen].[ 100 ] Being free while enslaved is a paradox. Christians are told to use the freedom God gives. However, they are to use their freedom as His bondslaves! True freedom is a privilege given to all who are dedicated to Christ (Ga 5:1). But, those so dedicated are His bondservants. Christians understand this. Probably they are the only ones who do. They voluntarily take Christ's yoke but, from experience, they know His burden is light (Mt 11:30).


2:17 Honor all people. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king.

Honor all people [shew honor to all, honor everyone].[ 101 ] To "honor all people" implies a basic dignity of man. Every person is of value (Mt 16:26). All people should be shown respect because God made them in His image and He loves them. In the first century, certain punishments were considered to be beneath the dignity of Roman citizens. Not just Romans, but all people, Jews and all others, because they are human beings, should be afforded a degree of respect, even honor (see chart HONOR ALL PEOPLE).

(1Pe 2:17)
  1. In honor giving preference to one another (Ro 12:10).
  2. Honor to whom honor (Ro 13:7).
  3. Each possess his own vessel in sanctification and honor (1Th 4:4).
  4. Elders that rule well, worthy of double honor (1Ti 5:17).
  5. Count masters worthy of all honor (1Ti 6:1).

Love the brotherhood [love the brotherhood of believers].[ 102 ] Peter reinforces what he taught about love of the brethren in chapter 1. "AGAPESATE love one another fervently with a pure heart" (1Pe 1:22). Again, he uses a form of AGAPEE, the higher kind of love the Lord taught when He questioned Peter (see notes on Joh 21:15, 16).

(1Pe 2:17)
  1. He who loves another has fulfilled the law (Ro 13:8).
  2. Love does no harm to a neighbor (Ro 13:10; compare 15:2).
  3. As we have opportunity, let us do good to all, especially to those who are of the household of faith (Ga 6:10).
  4. Put on tender mercies, kindness, humility, meekness, longsuffering (Col 3:12).
  5. Bearing with one another, and forgiving one another (Col 3:13).

In the great brotherhood of Christians, there are certain universal commonalities. Each one has been born again, has been washed in the same blood, serves the same risen Savior and has the same hope of heaven. All these things makes it easier to love the brotherhood.

(1Pe 2:17)
  1. Fear the LORD your God (De 10:12; see De 13:4; Jos 4:24).
  2. Fear the LORD and serve Him (Jos 24:14).
  3. Holy and reverend [awesome] is His name (Ps 111:9).
  4. Fear God and keep His commandments (Ec 12:13).

(1Pe 2:17)
  1. The LORD of hosts, Him you shall hallow; let Him be your fear, and let Him be your dread (Isa 8:13).
  2. Fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell (Mt 10:28).
  3. Do not be haughty, but fear (Ro 11:20).
  4. Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling (Php 2:12; compare Ps 55:5).

Fear God.[ 103 ] Sinners fear God with a dread that Christians to not experience. Before being invaded by Israel, the nations in the land of Canaan experienced "fear and dread" (Ex 15:16; De 2:25; 11:25). Egypt was afraid and feared because of "the waving of the hand" of the LORD (Isa 19:16). Christians have a deep reverence for God but they work out their own salvation with "fear and trembling" (see charts FEAR GOD A and B; FEAR AND WISDOM).

The fear[ 104 ] of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and instruction (Pr 1:7).

(1Pe 2:17)
  1. Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom (Job 28:28).
  2. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom (Ps 111:10; Pr 9:10).
  3. The fear of the LORD is the instruction of wisdom (Pr 15:33).

Honor the king [honor the emperor].[ 105 ] "King" is a broad enough term to include the supreme ruler of any country regardless of whether he is a literal king, president, dictator, prime minister or sovereign in general. Respect and honor are due these rulers. Both respect and honor imply submission (1Pe 2:13). Recall the argument about taxes. Not only are taxes due the government, but fear.

My son, fear the LORD and the king; do not associate with those given to change (Pr 24:21).

And He said to them, "Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (Mt 22:21).

Render therefore to all their due: taxes to whom taxes are due, customs to whom customs, fear to whom fear, honor to whom honor (Ro 13:7).


2:18 Servants, be submissive to your masters with all fear, not only to the good and gentle, but also to the harsh.

Servants.[ 106 ] Many NT Christians were bondslaves or household servants (see Eph 6:5-8; Col 3:22; 1Ti 6:1, 2).[ 107 ] Others were businessmen, rulers and doctors (but see 1Co 1:26, 27). In Christ there was neither slave nor free man (Ga 3:28). Nevertheless, Christian servants were not exempt from submission to their masters.

"Servants" in the present verse were "household servants." They may or may not have been slaves. Servants in a house were often within their master's sight and earshot. A master may have been picky, overbearing or pushy. He or she may have tried the patience of one or more of the servants. Even so, as Christians, servants had to be submissive. Most Christians today are not slaves, but many are servants in the sense that they are employed by another. The lesson applies to them as well.

Be submissive to your masters [be subject, in subjection, to your masters].[ 108 ] Except for not being obligated to do sinful things, employees are to accept the authority of their supervisors or administrators. They serve under them. If unwilling to do so, they should quit and seek another job.

With all fear [in all respect].[ 109 ] Servants are told to obey their masters "with all fear." They are also to fear God and serve their masters "as unto Him," that is, as if they were slaves of Christ. They are to serve "as to the Lord" (Eph 6:6, 7).

Not only to the good [not only to the kind, those who are good].[ 110 ] A good master is kind in heart and of benefit to his employees. A employer may have an acceptable attitude and at the same time be strict and demanding. Nevertheless, because of his efforts to be good, he is fair and honest in his evaluation of, and dealings with, his workers. He pays the wage agreed upon and pays on time. If the wage is less than appropriate, he raises the pay without being pressured to do so.

And gentle [and fair].[ 111 ] A gentle employer is more than fair. He is considerate of the needs and dispositions of the workers. Some employees may please the boss more than others. If this is due to personality differences, he treats all the same. He may pay his workmen more generously than is required. He makes it possible for them to take off in emergencies without undue loss of income. When a workman is recovering from an injury, he gives him lighter work for a while.

But also to the harsh [but also to the overbearing, froward, ill-tempered, unfair].[ 112 ] Sometimes a Christian takes a job with an unreasonable, harsh or perverse employer. Because the worker is a Christian, he shows respect for the surly taskmaster. If he sincerely prays for his employer, it helps him endure a lot of unfair treatment.

(1Pe 2:18)
  1. He who is perverse [crooked] in his ways will suddenly fall (Pr 28:18).
  2. The crooked places shall be made straight (Lu 3:5).
  3. Be saved from this perverse generation (Ac 2:40).
  4. Children of God without fault in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation (Php 2:15).


2:19 For this is commendable, if because of conscience toward God one endures grief, suffering wrongfully.

For this is commendable [for one is approved, for it is thankworthy, acceptable, praiseworthy].[ 113 ] It is a fine thing when one serves patiently under an employer when he causes him grief or suffering. Such behavior is worthy of commendation. By serving well, he may or may not receive more pay or better treatment but he finds favor in the eyes of God who rewards (see Eph 6:8; Col 3:24). There comfort in knowing God sees and approves.

If because [if].[ 114 ] One important consideration when rendering good service as well as maintaining the right attitude during unjust suffering is one's own conscience.

Of conscience toward God [mindful of God, for conscience, for conscience sake, towards God].[ 115 ] A Christian may suffer because of his relation to God. In fact, because he is a joint-heir with Christ, he can expect to do so (Ro 8:17). Conscience toward God is a complex idea. First, there is an inner awareness that God is observing one's outward actions. He is also looking upon the heart (1Sa 16:7). Again, it entails doing good service in His name (see Mk 9:41; Col 3:23).

One endures grief [you, he, a man, endure, endureth, bear up under, pain, griefs].[ 116 ] Unpleasant things must often just be endured. A faithful Christian receives strength from the Lord to bear up under suffering, sorrow and pain (see 1Pe 4:14).

Suffering wrongfully [while suffering unjustly].[ 117 ] Many situations and circumstances are difficult and unfair. Suffering may be undeserved and unjustly handed out. For example, in order to keep a job, one may have to endure ill-treatment. A marriage may cause heartache (Pr 21:9, 19; 25:24). A parent or teacher may treat children with partiality. The courts may falsely condemn the innocent.


2:20 For what credit is it if, when you are beaten for your faults, you take it patiently? But when you do good and suffer, if you take it patiently, this is commendable before God.

For what credit is it? [for what praise is there, what glory is it?].[ 118 ] The credit or glory Peter speaks of is in the sight of God. Jesus asked the disciples:

But if you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them (Lu 6:32).

He taught His disciples to do good to those who would do them harm.

But love your enemies, do good, and lend, hoping for nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High. For He is kind to the unthankful and evil (Lu 6:35).

Those who suffer unjustly deserve credit, recognition and commendation. Those who suffer ill-treatment for their own wrongs do not merit anything except punishment.

If, when you are beaten [and, when ye be, and being, buffeted].[ 119 ] When Jesus was on trial, His Jewish tormentors beat Him. The Romans scourged Him.Although the present context speaks of servants being beaten again and again, any Christian persecuted because of righteousness joins his Lord in the matter of suffering.

Then they spat in His face and beat[ 120 ] Him; and others struck Him with the palms of their hands (Mt 26:67).

There is no doubt that Matthew 26:67 is translated correctly. However, in the present verse, there is some question whether the translators of the NASB and NAU were justified in rendering a general term "harshly treated" for the specific term for beating (see the NIV, NKJV, RSV, TEV) or buffeting (see the KJV). In my opinion, cruel beating was what the Holy Spirit had in mind.

For your faults [for it, if when you do wrong, if sinning, if you sin?].when you sin].[ 121 ] Christians are to put away all evil from within and without. Nevertheless, they do have faults (Ga 6:1) and they do commit sin (1Jo 1:8-10). An employee, even one who is a Christian, may deserve harsh treatment. In some cultures, a beating is recognized punishment for unsatisfactory service.

You take it patiently [ye shall bear it, and endure patiently the punishment for it].[ 122 ] Patience and fortitude in suffering are not particularly virtuous in themselves. They are commendable only when endured for a righteous cause.

But when you do good [but if when ye do, for doing what is, right, well].[ 123 ] Doing good is always commendable but "good" in the present context is probably good behavior under persecution (see verse 15; 2Pe 3:6, 17; compare the noun "well-doing" or "doing what is right" in 1 Pe 4:19; see chart DOING RIGHT at verse 15).

And suffer [and suffering, you suffer for it].[ 124 ] The apostle refers to suffering for doing right such as the flogging he and John received in Jerusalem for preaching the gospel (Ac 5:40).

If you take it patiently [ye, ye shall, bear it, and patiently endure it].[ 125 ] It is commendable to calmly bear suffering with a sincere prayer for God's blessing to abide with the tormentor.

This is commendable before God [you have God's approval, this is acceptable, praiseworthy, with God].[ 126 ] There is divine favor or kindness shown to God's sufferers on earth. He recognizes, understands and appreciates Christians who suffer unfairly. He sees in them the likeness of His own Son who suffered unjustly on Calvary. He notices and bestows a blessing.


2:21-24 For to this you were called, because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow His steps: 22 "Who committed no sin, nor was deceit found in His mouth"; 23 who, when He was reviled, did not revile in return; when He suffered, He did not threaten, but committed Himself to Him who judges righteously; 24 who Himself bore our sins in His own body on the tree, that we, having died to sins, might live for righteousness-- by whose stripes you were healed.

For to this you were called [for even hereunto, unto this, you have been, have ye been, were ye, called].[ 127 ] Everyone is "called" who has heard God's voice in the precious gospel of Christ and has become His child by faith and obedience (see Joh 6:44, 45; Ro 10:16; 2Th 2:14). Although he may have listened to the gospel, one who has slighted the invitation is not recognized as one of "the called."

The immediate context relates to servants who suffer at the hands of abusive masters. Their calling is not just out of the world but is "to this" or "hereunto." There is a objective in being called. Peter makes clear what that objective is: "that you should follow His steps."

(1Pe 2:21-24)
  1. To bear our sins.
  2. That we might be healed by His wounds.
  3. That we might die to sin.
  4. That we might live to righteousness.
  5. To become our example.

Because Christ also suffered for us [for Christ also has suffered for you, in your behalf].[ 128 ] Some translators, in order to make clear that the Greek pronoun is plural, have rendered it "us". Christ suffered HUPER for you (plural). Yes, He also suffered for us. There is not a doubt in my mind that Christ died in our stead, but this verse emphasizes another reason for His death. He suffered in order to give a pattern for all (see chart REASONS FOR CHRIST'S DEATH).

Leaving us [leaving you].[ 129 ] One of the attendant blessings from Christ's patient suffering in connection with His death on Calvary is the great example He left for Christians for all time.

An example [a model].[ 130 ] Christ is the master. Christians are His pupils. He is the model. Christians copy or imitate Him. Their copies are somewhat rough and indistinct. Beginning Christians may not copy very accurately at all but, with continued practice and effort, they become more and more like the Savior they love.

That you should follow [that ye might, for you to, follow].[ 131 ] The Greek word suggests a close following of Christ. Christians are to give sharp attention to the example He set in all things, especially in the matter and manner of suffering.

His steps [in his footsteps].[ 132 ] Can you imagine, dear reader, that you, like John, are following the tracks Christ left in the sand one cool morning on the shore of Galilee. We may infer from John 21:20 that Jesus and Peter were walking along the beach when they had that famous conversation about love that ended with a statement about Peter's prospective, violent death. Let us "walk just as He walked." Let us "follow His steps" (see 1Jo 2:6). Let us follow His devotion, patience, righteousness, non-retaliation, trust, suffering and obedience.

(1Pe 2:21)
  1. In His attitude toward God.
  2. In His attitude toward the word.
  3. In His attitude toward sin.
  4. In His attitude toward other races.
  5. In His attitude toward the lost.
  6. In His attitude toward religious error.
  7. In His general disposition.

(1Pe 2:22)
  1. I find no fault in Him at all (Joh 18:38).
  2. Behold, I am bringing Him out to you, that you may know that I find no fault in Him (Joh 19:4).
  3. You take Him and crucify Him, for I find no fault in Him (Joh 19:6).


[2:22] Who committed no sin [He committed, who did, no sin].[ 133 ] The ruling Jews made a concerted effort to find something amiss in Jesus' life and teaching.

Now the chief priests, the elders, and all the council sought false testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, but found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. But at last two false witnesses came forward (Mt 26:59, 60).

The only "fault" the Jews found against Jesus was a misapplication of what He had said about rebuilding the temple in three days. This, of course, was in reference to His own bodily resurrection. Three times Pilate pronounced Him innocent (see charts PILATE FOUND NO FAULT; SINLESS JESUS A and B).

(1Pe 2:22)
  1. Had done no violence, nor was deceit in His mouth (Isa 53:9).
  2. Which of you convicts Me of sin? (Joh 8:46).
  3. The ruler of this world .
  4. . . has nothing in Me (Joh 14:30).

(1Pe 2:22)
  1. Made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us (2Co 5:21).
  2. In all points tempted as we are, yet without sin (Heb 4:15; compare 7:26).
  3. Committed no sin (1Pe 2:22).
  4. In Him there is no sin (1Jo 3:5).

Nor was deceit found in His mouth [no guile was, neither was guile, found on his lips].[ 134 ] The Greek indicates that the Jews made a diligent search to find falsehood, guile or deceit in Christ's words. They found none.

[2:23] Who, when He was reviled [who, when, though].[ 135 ] Not just once, but constantly was Jesus reviled. They scoffed, "Is this not the carpenter's son?" (Mt 13:55). They mocked Him, yelling out, "Come down from the cross!" (see Mt 27:40, 42; Mk 15:30, 32). They were constantly annoying Him with their obnoxious insinuations that He was a Sabbath-breaker (see chart INSULTS HURLED AT JESUS).

(1Pe 2:23)
  1. Has a demon and is mad (Joh 10:20).
  2. A gluttonous man and a winebibber (Mt 11:19).
  3. Casting out demons by Beelzebub (Lu 11:15).
  4. Has spoken blasphemy! (Mt 26:65).
  5. Prophesy! Who is the one who struck You? (Lu 22:64).
  6. You who destroy the temple and build it in three days, save Yourself! (Mt 27:40).
  7. He saved others; Himself He cannot save (Mt 27:42).

Did not revile in return [he did not revile back, in return, reviled not again].[ 136 ] When Jesus was tried and crucified, the onlookers abused Him. Both the Jews and the Romans hurled insult after insult. An ordinary man would have been expected to mutter curses in response to what they continued to say. He did not retaliate nor answer in kind.

(1Pe 2:23)
  1. Jesus began to show to His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things (Mt 16:21).
  2. The Son of Man is also about to suffer at their hands (Mt 17:12).
  3. But now, once at the end of the ages, He has appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself (Heb 9:26).

(1Pe 2:23)
  1. Suffered outside the gate (Heb 13:12).
  2. Also suffered for us (1Pe 2:21).
  3. Also suffered once for sins (1Pe 3:18).
  4. Suffered for us in the flesh (1Pe 4:1).

When He suffered [when suffering].[ 137 ] Being Deity did not neutralize or even minimize the suffering of Jesus. Under such great stress, it is difficult to hold one's peace and be polite. Our Lord never folded under pressure. He did not succumb to the temptation to speak evil of his tormentors (see charts SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST A and B).

He did not threaten [threatened, he threatened, not].[ 138 ] Jesus could have threatened His tormentors with torture, death or hell but instead He prayed for them (see Lu 23:34).

But committed Himself [but he trusted, but gave, he gave, himself, himself over].[ 139 ] Instead of retaliating or cursing, Jesus continually kept on committing Himself (Greek imperfect tense) to God who judges righteously. He knew God would judge Him correctly and not according to the insults of evil men.

To Him who judges righteously [into the hands of him that judgeth justly].[ 140 ] The Judge of all the earth does right [deals justly] (see Ge 18:25). Not only is He just but He is merciful and kind (see note on 1Pe 1:17). David wrote about both His mercy and justice in the same passage:

Your mercy, O LORD, is in the heavens; your faithfulness reaches to the clouds. Your righteousness is like the great mountains; your judgments are a great deep; O LORD, You preserve man and beast (Ps 36:5, 6).


[2:24] Who Himself [He himself, who his own self].[ 141 ] Though surrounded by hundreds of soldiers and spectators, Jesus, though crucified between two thieves, was the central figure on Calvary.

Bore our sins [bare, carried, our sins].[ 142 ] Jesus was both sacrifice and the one who bore the offering to the cross. He gave Himself (Mt 20:28; Ga 1:4; 2:20). It is as though Christ carried our sins with Him as he ascended the "altar," the cross on Calvary's hill.[ 143 ] After He ascended He offered Himself in the great heavenly temple.

For Christ has not entered the holy places made with hands, which are copies of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us; 25 not that He should offer Himself often, as the high priest enters the Most Holy Place every year with blood of another-- 26 He then would have had to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now, once at the end of the ages, He has appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself (Heb 9:24-26).

So Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many. To those who eagerly wait for Him He will appear a second time, apart from sin, for salvation (Heb 9:28).

In His own body [in his body].[ 144 ] Jesus offered Himself (Heb 9:26; see note above on Who Himself).

(1Pe 2:24)
  1. Jesus whom you murdered by hanging on a XULOU tree (Ac 5:30).
  2. Whom they killed by hanging on a XULOU tree (Ac 10:39).
  3. They took Him down from the XULOU tree and laid Him in a tomb (Ac 13:29).
  4. Cursed is everyone who hangs on a XULOU tree (Ga 3:13; compare (De 21:23).
  5. Who Himself bore our sins in His own body on the XULON tree (1Pe 2:24).

On the tree [upon the cross].[ 145 ] The Greek word for "tree" in the present verse means wood. It can be anything made of wood such as a tree, cross or gallows. In modern paraphrased versions, one may expect anything. It seems rather odd, however, and quite unnecessary, for a translation such as the NEB to render the word as "the gallows"[ 146 ] (see Ac 5:30; 10:39; chart TREE OF THE CROSS).

That we, having died to sins [in order that, we might die, being dead to sin, unto sins, we might be separated from our sins].[ 147 ] Worldly people may live in order to sin but Christians do not. They have died to it.

What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin that grace may abound? 2 Certainly not! How shall we who died to sin live any longer in it? (Ro 6:1, 2).

To die to sin is to be freed from it, to cease committing it and live righteously (compare Ro 6:7, 18; 1Pe 4:1).

Might live for righteousness [and, should, we may, live to, unto, righteousness].[ 148 ] Of first importance is to live righteously.

But seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added to you (Mt 6:33).

One of the antitheses of lawlessness is righteousness (Heb 1:9). A person begins to live "for righteousness" when he obeys the gospel and receives remission of sins (Ac 2:38). From baptism, he rises to live a new life.

Therefore we were buried with Him through baptism into death, that just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life (Ro 6:4).

To walk in newness of life is to live "for righteousness." One who does that always seeks to obey God's righteous commands (Ps 119:172).

By whose stripes you were healed [by his wounds, ye were, have been, healed].[ 149 ] "Stripes" or "wounds" refer to a prophecy in Isaiah. Jesus was "smitten by God and afflicted" (Isa 53:4).

But He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement for our peace was upon Him, and by His stripes we are healed (Isa 53:5).

Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise Him; he has put Him to grief. When You make His soul an offering for sin, he shall see His seed, He shall prolong His days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in His hand (Isa 53:10).

The Greek word for "wounds" or "stripes" in 1 Peter 2:24 is in the singular number. This has caused some to speculate that the beating and scourging left Christ's entire body as one great wound! Others think it may refer to the piercing of His side.

Scourging, among the Romans, was administered by rods (Ac 16:22; 2Co 11:25) or whips, the thongs of which were weighted with jagged pieces of bone or metal to make the blows more effective (Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15; Joh 19:1). Law forbade scourging Roman citizens (Ac 22:25) but slaves were not exempt from it.[ 150 ] Perhaps some of Peter's readers who were bondservants or aliens had been scourged.

(1Pe 2:24)
  1. Dorcas fell sick and died (Ac 9:36, 37).
  2. Paul's thorn in the flesh (2Co 12:7).
  3. Epaphroditus was sick almost unto death (Php 2:25-27).
  4. Timothy's frequent infirmities (1Ti 5:23).
  5. Trophimus left in Miletus sick (2Ti 4:20).

"Healed" refers to spiritual healing, the forgiveness of sins (compare Mt 13:15). The deep, painful, bleeding wounds in the body of Christ match the deep, terrible wounds of sin in our souls. By His wounds, we are healed of sin. If one explains this as literal, bodily healing then all Christians would surely experience miraculous recovery from every injury and disease. Especially, during the days of miracles that would have been the case but it was not. Various NT Christians had physical ailments (see chart AFFLICTED SAINTS). If physical healing were a part of the atonement that would suggest that these fine people who were not miraculously healed were lost.


2:25 For you were like sheep going astray, but have now returned to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls.

For you were like sheep going astray [for ye were like straying sheep, straying, going astray, as sheep][ 151 ] (see charts GOD'S FLOCK A, B and C). Jesus accused the Sadducees of straying when He asked them:

Are you not therefore mistaken,[ 152 ] because you do not know the Scriptures nor the power of God? (Mk 12:24).

(1Pe 2:25)
  1. Who may lead them out and bring them in, that the congregation of the LORD may not be like sheep which have no shepherd? (Nu 27:17).
  2. I saw all Israel scattered on the mountains, as sheep that have no shepherd (1Ki 22:17).
  3. The LORD is my shepherd (Ps 23:1).

(1Pe 2:25)
  1. Why does Your anger smoke against the sheep of Your pasture? (Ps 74:1).
  2. He made His own people go forth like sheep, and guided them in the wilderness like a flock (Ps 78:52).
  3. Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, you who lead Joseph like a flock (Ps 80:1).

(1Pe 2:25)
  1. All we like sheep have gone astray Isa 53:6).
  2. He who scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him as a shepherd does his flock (Jer 31:10).
  3. Woe to the shepherds of Israel who feed themselves! Should not the shepherds feed the flocks? (Eze 34:2).
  4. I will establish one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them-- My servant David (Eze 34:23).

But have now returned [but are now, but now you have, returned].[ 153 ] In the past, Peter's readers, whether Gentiles or Jews, were continually straying. However, at some point in time they returned. They heard the Shepherd's call through the preaching of the gospel. They returned as they obeyed the truth (1Pe 1:22). This was at their conversion or, possibly, their restoration.

(1Pe 2:25)
  1. Go rather to the lost sheep of house of Israel (Mt 10:6).
  2. As a shepherd divides his sheep from the goats (Mt 25:32).
  3. It is written: "I will strike the Shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered" (Mt 26:31; compare Zec 13:7).

(1Pe 2:25)
  1. Compassion for them, because they were like sheep not having a shepherd (Mk 6:34).
  2. Do not fear, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom (Lu 12:32).
  3. Who of you have a hundred sheep? (Lu 15:4).

(1Pe 2:25)
  1. The sheep follow him, for they know his voice (Joh 10:4).
  2. Other sheep I have which are not of this fold (Joh 10:16).
  3. Gave some to be apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, and some pastors [shepherds] and teachers (Eph 4:11).
  4. Shepherd the flock of God which is among you (1Pe 5:2).

To the Shepherd [unto the Shepherd].[ 154 ] Like a shepherd, Christ came "to seek and save that which was lost" (Lu 19:10). Like a shepherd, He knows His sheep and calls them by name (Joh 10:3, 14). As the Good Shepherd, He laid down His life for the sheep (Joh 10:11, 17, 18; see charts THE LORD'S SHEEP A, B and C).

(1Pe 2:25)
  1. The good shepherd gives His life for the sheep (Joh 10:11).
  2. Our Lord Jesus from the dead, that great Shepherd of the sheep (Heb 13:20).
  3. For you were like sheep going astray, but have now returned to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls (1Pe 2:25).
  4. When the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that does not fade (1Pe 5:4).

And Overseer [and Guardian, Bishop].[ 155 ] Jesus is Bishop and head of the entire church. He is Universal Bishop, a title usurped by the pope of Rome.

(1Pe 2:25)
  1. Shepherd [feeds, guides, protects].
  2. Overseer [superintends, guards, directs].

Of your souls.[ 156 ] Every Christian is precious to the great Shepherd and Guardian of our souls. He gave His life to purchase them. As Guardian and Shepherd, Jesus suffered untold pain. He endured all kinds of insults. When sinners became Christians, they came to Him. He led the way for them to follow (see verse 21). Some of Peter's readers were, no doubt, in literal bondage. Others were suffering persecution. Yet, their souls were free under Christ (see verse 16). His yoke is easy, but the enemies of Christ make the survival of Christians difficult. The Lord underwent more suffering than most Christians ever shall experience. He was patient, virtuous and honorable through it all. He has invited every Christian to pick up the cross and follow Him (Lu 14:27; see chart CHRIST'S SOUL MINISTRY).


[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]OUN, therefore (Marshall 911); a conjunction indicating that something follows from another necessarily . . . used in drawing a conclusion and in connecting sentences together logically, then, therefore, accordingly, consequently, these things being so (Thayer 463).
[ 3 ]APOTHEMENOI, putting away (Marshall 911); [APO from, TITHEEMI to put, place, set, lay], putting off from oneself (Vine 649); lay aside, rid one's self of (Arndt 101); once for all get rid of (Williams); having put away from yourselves (Lenski 76).
[ 4 ]When getting ready to stone Stephen, "the witnesses APETHENTO laid aside and put down their robes (Ac 7:58; see Arndt 101).
[ 5 ]PASAN, all (Marshall 911); literally, every, or all manner of (Vincent 1.641).
[ 6 ]KAKIAN, malice (Marshall 911; Williams); badness in quality [the opposite of ARETEE excellence], "the vicious character generally" [Lightfoot] (Vine 704); a special kind of moral inferiority, with other deficiencies, something like malice, ill-will, malignity (Arndt 397); baseness (Lenski 76).
[ 7 ]See usage of the Greek term in Acts 8:22; Romans 1:29; 1 Corinthians 5:8; 14:20; Ephesians 4:31.
[ 8 ]KAI PANTA DOLON, and all guile (Marshall 911; Lenski 76); a bait, snare, deceit, negatively of that from which Christians are to be free (Vine 515); deceit, cunning, treachery (Arndt 203); deceit (Williams).
[ 9 ]KAI HUPOKRISEIS, and hypocrisies (Marshall 911; Lenski 76); plural, primarily denotes replies, answers [akin to HUPOKRINOMAI to answer]; then, play-acting, as the actors spoke in dialogue; hence, pretenses, hypocrisies (Vine 571); hypocrisy (Williams).
[ 10 ]KAI PHTHONOUS, and envies (Marshall 911; Lenski 76); envy, the feeling of displeasure produced by witnessing or hearing of the advantage or prosperity of others; this evil sense always attaches to this word (Vine 367); envy (Williams).
[ 11 ]KAI PASAS KATALALIAS, and all detractions (Marshall 911); literally, speakings against (Vincent 1.641); [KATA against, LALEOO to speak], translated backbiter in 2 Corinthians 12:20; evil-speaking (Vine 382); and all sorts of slander (Williams); and all defamations (Lenski 76).
[ 12 ]Is one reason listening to spicy gossip is so alluring that within one's own heart there is resentment of the righteousness and good fortune of others?
[ 13 ]HOOS ARTIGENNEETA BREPHEE, as new born babes (Marshall 911, 912; Lenski 76); literally, born but just now [ARTI] (Vincent 1.641); [ARTI newly, recently, GENNEETOS born], newborn; BREPHEE, the word signifying peculiarly a child at birth, or of tender years . . . here marking the recency of Christian life in the converts addressed (Vincent 1.641); newborn children, or infants still older (Vine 85, Vine 102); and like new-born babies (Williams).
[ 14 ]If newborn babies are sinners, we would have Peter asking Christians to become like sinners. The passage in the NIV that says babies are born sinners is an inadequate translation (see Ps 53:5). The son shall not bear the punishment for the father's iniquity, nor will the father bear the punishment for the son's iniquity" (Eze 18:20; compare Mt 18:3, 10; 19:14; Mk 9:37; 10:14).
[ 15 ]EPIPOTHEESATE, desire ye (Marshall 912); the compound is intensive; earnestly desire (Vincent 1.641); long after, lust (Vine 291); thirst for (Williams); long for (Lenski 76).
[ 16 ]TO ADOLON, the pure (Marshall 912); an epithet of the milk. Literally, without guile, unadulterated (Vincent 1.641); guileless, pure (Vine 1047); pure [from ADOLOS without deceit]; the word for deceit is DOLOS, deceit, fraud, guile (Littrell); pure (Williams; Lenski 912).
[ 17 ]There is a reference in Irenaeus about people adding powdered gypsum to milk to make it go further.
[ 18 ]LOGIKON GALA, spiritual milk (Marshall 912; Williams); describes the quality of the milk as spiritual or rational, as opposed to literal and ceremonial (Vincent 1.641); milk, metaphorically, of rudimentary spiritual teaching . . . here the meaning largely depends upon the significance of the word LOGIKOS . . . While it is true that the Word of God, like milk, nourishes the soul, and this is involved in the exhortation, the only other occurrence in the NT is Romans 12:1, where it is translated "reasonable," that is, rational, intelligent [service], in contrast to the offering of an irrational animal; so here the nourishment may be understood as of that spiritually rational nature which, acting through the regenerate mind, develops spiritual growth. God's Word is not given so that it is impossible to understand it, or that it requires a special class of men to interpret it; its character is such that the Holy Spirit who gave it can unfold its truths even to the young convert (Vine 740); 1 Peter 2:2 is to be taken in the same way pure spiritual milk; it is to be borne in mind that LOGIKON means spiritual not only in the sense of PNEUMATIKOS spiritual, but also in contrast to "literal", with the meaning "metaphorical" (Arndt 476); rational, agreeable to reason, following reason, reasonable . . . the milk which nourishes the soul (Thayer 379); native to the Word (Lenski 76).
[ 19 ]LOGIKEEN LATREIAN, reasonable service (Ro 12:1).
[ 20 ]HINA EN AUTOO AUXEETHEETE,in order that by it ye may grow (Marshall 912); used transitively, signifying to make to increase . . . of believers individually (Vine 511); that you may be nourished therein (Woods 55, 56); so that by it you may grow up (Williams); with it you may be made to grow (Lenski 76).
[ 21 ]EIS SOOTEERIAN, to salvation (Marshall 912); for salvation [that is, to appropriate it for oneself or grant it to another] (Arndt 801); unto salvation (Lenski 76); to final salvation (Williams).
[ 22 ]EI EGEUSASTHE, if ye tasted (Marshall 912); aorist tense. More literally, ye tasted (Vincent 1.642); metaphorically, of believers tasting that the Lord is gracious (Vine 1123); since you have learned by experience (Williams); if you did taste (Lenski 76). The aorist tense seems to point to a specific event in past time when Peter's readers "tasted" that the Lord is gracious.
[ 23 ]HOTI CHREESTOS HO KURIOS, that good the Lord [is] (Marshall 912); actively benignant, (Vincent 1.641); serviceable, good, pleasant [of things], good gracious, kind [of persons] (Vine 622); kind, loving, benevolent (Arndt 886); that the Lord is kind (Williams); that the Lord is benignant (Lenski 76).
[ 24 ]PROS HON PROSERCHOMENOI, to whom approaching (Marshall 912); indicating a close [PROS] and an habitual [present participle] approach and an intimate association (Vincent 1.642); come or go near to [PROS near to] (Vine 196); keep on coming to Him (Williams); to whom coming (Lenski 83).
[ 25 ]LITHON ZOONTA, stone a living (Marshall 912); omit as unto (Vincent 1.642); present participle of the verb ZAOO to live; stone, metaphorically, of Christ (Vine 680); a living stone (Williams; Lenski 83); figurative, of Christ (Arndt 474); see verses 6, 8.
[ 26 ]HUPO ANTHROOPOON MEN APODEDOKIMASMENON, by men on one hand having been rejected (Marshall 912); rejection after trial (Vincent 1.642); rejected as the result of examination and disapproval [APO away from, DOKIMAZO to approve], of the rejection of Christ by the elders and chief priests of the Jews (Vine 941); by men, indeed, having been on test rejected (Lenski 83); rejected by men (Williams).
[ 27 ]EKLEKTON, chosen (Marshall 912);literally, signifies picked out, chosen. [EK from, LEGO to gather, pick out], used of Christ, the chosen of God, metaphorically, as a "living Stone," a chief corner Stone" (Vine 351); since the best is usually chosen, choice, excellent (Arndt 242); but chosen (Williams); elect (Lenski 83).
[ 28 ]ENTIMON, precious (Marshall 912); precious, held in honor [TIME honor, price; of great price, precious, costly], of stones, used metaphorically (Vine 875); valuable, precious (Arndt 269); held in honor, prized (Thayer 218); and precious in His sight (Williams); in honor (Lenski 83); PARA DE THEO, with God; that is, God being judge; PARA has a stronger sense than of, implying the absolute power of decisive choice which is with God (Vincent 1.642).
[ 29 ]KAI AUTOI HOOS LITHOI ZOONTES, also [your]selves as stones living (Marshall 912); [living] stones, metaphorically of believers (Vine 1089); figurative of the Christians, living stones [in the spiritual temple] (Arndt 474); you yourselves also as living stones (Lenski 83); yourselves . . . as living stones (Williams).
[ 30 ]OIKODOMEISTHE, are being built (Marshall 912); literally, built [OIKOS a house, DOMEOO to build] (Vine 148); second person plural, present passive indicative of OIKODOMAI (Han 418);some take this as a command, "and keep on building yourselves up as living stones" (Williams, RSV, Bigg); others take it as indicative stating that Christians are built up (see Kelcy, Robertson); are built (Lenski 83).
[ 31 ]In 1 Timothy 3:15, some translations render OIKOO house as household. It is difficult to determine if Paul meant the church was the household or family of God, or the house in the sense of God's temple.
[ 32 ]OIKOS PNEUMATIKOS, house spiritual (Marshall 912); the whole company of those who believe in Christ is a "spiritual house" (Vine 1078); a spiritual house (Williams; Lenski 83).
[ 33 ]EIS HIERATEUMA HAGION, for priesthood a holy (Marshall 912); of men and things in so far as they are devoted to God . . . saints, that is, "sanctified" or "holy ones" . . . figuratively spoken of as . . . "a holy priesthood" (Vine 556, 557); for a consecrated priesthood [as Peter sees it, all Christians are priests who offer praise, holiness, and service] (Williams); for a holy priesthood (Lenski 83). It is interesting that the word "pontifex" [a member of the council of priests in ancient Rome] is from the Latin PONS bridge. Thus, a priest was a bridge-builder, bridging the gap between man and God.
[ 34 ]ANENENKAI PNEUMATIKAS THUSIAS, to offer spiritual sacrifices (Marshall 912); primarily, to lead or carry up [ANA], also denotes to offer . . . of spiritual sacrifices in general; the activities Godward of regenerate men are "spiritual sacrifices" (Vine 803, 1078); literally, to bring up to the altar (Vincent 1.643); to offer up spiritual sacrifices (Williams; Lenski 83); see note on verse 24 where it is noted that Christ ANEENENKEN bare our sins, carried them up, to the cross (1pE 2:24).
[ 35 ]EUPROSDEKTOUS [TO] THEOO, acceptable to God (Marshall 912); a stronger form of DEKTOS [than APODEKTOS], signifies a very favorable acceptance [EU well, PROS towards, DEKTOS a person or thing who has been regarded favorably] (Vine 12); that will be acceptable to God (Williams); acceptable to God (Lenski 83).
[ 36 ]DIA 'IEESOU CHRISTOU, through Jesus Christ (Marshall 912; Lenski 83; Williams).
[ 37 ]DIOTI PERIECHEI EN GRAPHEE, because it is contained in scripture (Marshall 912); a passage of scripture (Vincent 1.643); [PERI round about, ECHOO to hold]; hence, contained or comprehended [in Scripture (Vincent 1.643); literally, has round [PERI around, ECHOO to have], is encompassed, enclosed, contained, as a writing contains details (Vine 225); wherefore it is contained in Scripture (Lenski 92); it must be so because the Scriptures say (Williams).
[ 38 ]IDOU TITHEEMI EN ZIOON LITHON EKLEKTON, Behold I lay in Sion stone a chosen (Marshall 912); put, place, set [a] chosen out, select [stone], metaphorically, of Christ (Vine 182, 648, 1089); here now I lay in Zion a chosen stone (Williams); behold, I place in Zion a stone, elect (Lenski 92).
[ 39 ]It is probable that the first gospel sermon on Pentecost was preached right there on the temple mount, with the 3,000 being baptized in one or more of several pools such as Bethesda and Siloam.
[ 40 ]AKROGOONIAION ENTIMON, corner foundation precious (Marshall 912); precious, (Vine 875); a chosen corner-foundation (Marshall 912); [purely Biblical] lying at the extreme corner, cornerstone or capstone [R. J. McKelvey rejects capstone], with reference to the preciousness of the material (Arndt 33); [AKROS extreme, GONIA corner, angle], placed at the extreme corner; corner-stone; used of Christ . . . For as the corner-stone holds together two walls, so Christ joins together as Christians, into one body dedicated to God, those who were formerly Jews and Gentiles. And as a corner-stone contributes to sustain the edifice, but nevertheless some fall in going around the corner carelessly; so some are built up by the aid of Christ, while others stumbling at Christ perish (Thayer 24); a stone as a corner-head, in honor (Lenski 92); a costly corner-stone (Williams); see note on verse 4.
[ 41 ]Foundations today are made mostly of concrete. A similar material made of hydrated lime and gypsum was used by the ancient Egyptians. About 200 BC the Romans added volcanic ash called Pozzolana. Their product would harden under water and was used to make aqueducts. Portland cement was invented by Joseph Aspdin in 1824 and is still in use as these notes are written in AD 2001.
[ 42 ]KAI HO PISTEUOON EP' AUTOO, AND THE [one] believing on it [him] (Marshall 912); and the one believing on him (Lenski 93); and not a single one who puts his trust in Him (Williams); AUTOO is a third person singular personal pronoun and is in the accusative case, either masculine or neuter.
[ 43 ]See Machen 96.
[ 44 ]The NASB translation of Isaiah 28:16, has one believing in "it."
[ 45 ]OU MEE KATAISCHUNTHEE, by no means will be shamed (Marshall 912); [a strengthened form of AISCHUNOO to have a feeling of fear or shame which prevents a person from doing a thing, KATA down, intensive], used in the passive voice, put to shame (Vine 69); by a Hebrew usage one is said to be put to shame who suffers a repulse, or whom some hope has deceived; hence . . . does not disappoint (Thayer 331); passive, [not] be disappointed . . . put to shame (Arndt 410, 411); will ever be put to shame (Williams); shall not be ashamed (Lenski 93).
[ 46 ]TOIS PISTEUOUSIN, the [ones] believing (Marshall 912); you who put your trust in Him (Williams); the ones believing (Lenski 93).
[ 47 ]HUMIN OUN HEE TIMEE, to you=yours therefore [is] the honor (Marshall 912); for you therefore which believe is the preciousness [honor in margin] (Vincent 1.643); the noun TIME is translated "precious, preciousness," of the preciousness of Christ unto believers, that is, the honor and inestimable value of Christ as appropriated by believers, who are joined, as living stones, to Him the Corner-Stone (Vine 560, 875); praise of which one is judged worthy (Thayer 624); so to you the honor belongs (Williams); for you, accordingly, is the honor (Lenski 93).
[ 48 ]APISTOUSIN, to unbelieving [ones] (Marshall 912); have no belief, disbelieve (Thayer 57); "disbelieve" is the best rendering, implying that the unbeliever has had a full opportunity of believing and has rejected it; some manuscripts have APEITHEOO to be disobedient (Vine 306); but for such as disbelieve (Lenski 93); but to those who fail to trust Him (Williams).
[ 49 ]DE LITHOS HON APEDOKIMASAN HOI OIKODOMOUNTES, but a stone which rejected the [ones] building (Marshall 912); rejection after trial (Vincent 1.642); rejected as the result of examination and disapproval [APO away from, DOKIMAZOO to approve], of the rejection of Christ by the elders and chief priests of the Jews (Vine 941); disapproved, rejected (Thayer 61); the stone which those building did on test reject (Lenski 93); that stone which then the builders threw away (Williams).
[ 50 ]HOUTOS EGENEETHEE EIS KEPHALEEN GOONIAS, this came to be for head of [the] corner (Marshall 912); literally, was made or became unto the head [of the corner] (Vincent 1.644); the corner-stone or head-stone of the corner . . . laid so as to give strength to the two walls with which they were connected. So Christ unites Jew and Gentile, Eph 2:20; again, as one may carelessly stumble over the corner stone, when turning the corner, so Christ proved a stumbling stone to Jews (Vine 233); has now become the cornerstone (Williams); this One became corner-head (Lenski 93).
[ 51 ]KAI LITHOS PROSKOMMATOS, a stone of stumbling (Marshall 912; Lenski 93); an obstacle against which one may dash his foot [akin to PROSKOPTOO to stumble or cause to stumble; PROS to or against, KOPTOO to strike], used of Christ, [a stone] of stumbling (Vine 801); stone [from LITHOS, used throughout this section where "stone" is found (Littrell); a stone for them to stumble over (Williams).
[ 52 ]KAI PETRA SKANDALOU, in the NT SKANDALON is always used metaphorically, and ordinarily of anything that arouses prejudice, or becomes a hindrance to others, or causes them to fall by the way. Sometimes the hindrance is in itself good, and those stumbled by it are wicked . . . of Christ, [a rock] of offence (Vine 801); properly the movable stick or tricker ["trigger"] of a trap, trap-stick; a trap, snare; any impediment placed in the way and causing one to stumble or fall, [a stumbling-block, occasion of stumbling] . . . [KJ a rock of offence], that is a rock which is a cause of stumbling, figuratively applied to Jesus Christ, whose person and career were so contrary to the expectations of the Jews concerning the Messiah, that they rejected him and by their obstinacy made shipwreck of salvation (Thayer 577); rock [from PETRA a bed-rock, large ledge of rock] the word used by Jesus [Mt 16:18, "On this rock ..."] (Littrell); and a rock of entrapment (Lenski 93); and a rock to trip them up (Williams); the word for the spiritual "Rock" that was Christ, of which Israel drank is PETRA (see 1Co 10:4).
[ 53 ]HOI PROSKOPTOUSIN, the enemies of Christianity are said [to stumble at the word] (Thayer 548); collided with something bringing hurt or injury (Woods 61).
[ 54 ]Compare Vine 1099.
[ 55 ]EIS HO KAI ETETHEESAN, to which indeed they were appointed (Marshall 912); ETETHEESAN is third person plural, first aorist passive indicative of TITHEEMI (Han 418); of the appointment [to punishment] of unbelieving Israel (Vine 60); and this is their appointed doom (Williams); for which they also were appointed (Lenski 93).
[ 56 ]HUMEIS DE GENOS EKLEKTON, but ye [are] race a chosen (Marshall 912); literally signifies picked out, chosen [EK from, LEGOO to gather, pick out], used of believers as a spiritual race (Vine 351. 352); stock, race, chosen by God to obtain salvation through Christ . . . the chosen of God (Thayer 113, 197); but [DE] is a disjunctive and "ye" is emphatic; the meaning of which is, "But as for you, in contradistinction to the Jews who rejected Christ, you are an elect race, etc." (Woods 62); but you are the chosen race (Williams); you, however, [are] a race elect (Lenski 99).
[ 57 ]BASILEION HIERATEUMA, a royal priesthood (Marshall 912; Lenski 99); royal [from BASILEUS a king], denoting royal, used of the priesthood consisting of all believers, associated with the royal dignity of showing forth the Lord's excellencies (Vine 623, 884, 978); the royal priesthood (Williams).
[ 58 ]ETHNOS HAGION, nation a holy (Marshall 912; Lenski 99); a holy nation (Vine 557); race emphasizes the idea of descent; nation, of community (Vincent 1.644); just as the Israelites claimed for themselves the title HOI HAGIOI, because God selected them from the other nations to lead a life acceptable to him and rejoice in his favor and protection [Da 7:18, 22; 2Esdr 8:28], so this appellation is very often in the NT transferred to Christians, as those whom God has selected EK TOU KOSMOU [Joh 17:14, 16], that under the influence of the Holy Spirit they may be rendered, through holiness, partakers of salvation in the kingdom of God (Thayer 7); the consecrated nation (Williams).
[ 59 ]An atheist does not believe in God. An infidel rejects Christ. An agnostic professes not to know whether or not there is a God.
[ 60 ]LAOS EIS PERIPOIEESIN, a people for possession (Marshall 912; Lenski 99); literally, a people for acquisition; very often in the Septuagint, mostly of the Israelites, the chosen people in its metaphorical and Christian application, the chosen Israel of God (Vincent 1.644); people, of Christians as the people of God; an obtaining, an acquisition (Vine 844, 866); possession, one's own property (Thayer 504); possessing, possession, property; a people that has become [God's own] possession; a people made his own possession (Arndt 467, 650); Peculiar is from the Latin PECULIARIS, of private property, special. The first definition in Webster is "belonging exclusively to one person or group (Webster's New Collegiate); the people to be His very own (Williams).
[ 61 ]HOPOOS TAS ARETAS EXANGEILEETE, so as the virtues ye may tell out (Marshall 913); proclaim, tell abroad; literally, the virtues (Vincent 1.644); publish completely [EK out, ANGELLOO to proclaim], indicates a complete proclamation [verbs compounded with EK often suggest what is to be done fully]; properly denotes whatever procures pre-eminent estimation for a person or thing; hence, intrinsic eminence, moral goodness, virtue; here the original and general sense seems to be blended with the impression made on others, that is, renown, excellence or praise (Vine 1201, 1033); in accordance with a usage that treats ARETAS and DOXA as synonyms, which finds expression outside the OT [Isa 42:8, 12] in the juxtaposition of the two concepts . . . The latter meaning [plural=lauds] can be the correct one for 1 Peter 2:9, which may be influenced by Isaiah 42:12; 43:21. But another sense is possible, namely manifestation of divine power, miracle (Arndt 106); in order that you may announce abroad the fame (Lenski 99); to proclaim the perfection (Williams).
[ 62 ]EK SKOTOUS, out of darkness (Marshall 913; Williams; Lenski 99); neuter noun, frequent in the Septuagint, is used in the NT as the equivalent of physical darkness, [here] by metonymy, of moral and spiritual darkness (Vine 260).
[ 63 ]EIS TO THAUMASTON AUTOU PHOOS, into the marvelous of him light (Marshall 913); marvelous [akin to THEAOMAI to gaze in wonder],of the spiritual light into which believers are brought (Vine 717); wonderful, marvelous, remarkable, in our literature of God [and] of things which are often related to God, of light (Arndt 352); into His wonderful light (Lenski 99; Williams).
[ 64 ]HOI POTE OU LAOS, who were then not a people (Marshall 913); denotes once upon a time, formerly, sometime (Vine 809); the people of God, of the Christians (Arndt 566, 567); the people God has chosen for himself, selected as peculiarly his own . . . the same is transferred to the community of Christians, as that which by the blessing of Christ has come to take the place of the theocratic people of Israel . . . particularly to a church of Christians gathered from among the Gentiles (Thayer 372); once you were not a people (Williams); those once no people (Lenski 99).
[ 65 ]NUN DE LAOS THEOU, but [are] now a people of God (Marshall 913); a people of God (Vincent 1.644); of time, the immediate present (Vine 791); but now you are the people of God (Williams); now, however, God's people (Lenski 99).
[ 66 ]HOI OUK EELEEEMEMOI, the [ones] not having been pitied (Marshall 913); sympathy with the misery of another, and especially sympathy manifested in act . . . in the passive voice, have pity or mercy shown one, obtained mercy (Vine 733); who once had not found mercy, but now have found it (Arndt 249); once His mercy had not been shown you (Williams); those not having been granted mercy (Lenski 99).
[ 67 ]NUN DE ELEETHENTES, but now pitied (Marshall 913); but now it has (Williams); now, however, granted mercy (Lenski 99).
[ 68 ]AGAPEETOI, beloved (Marshall 913; Lenski 105); [from AGAPAOO to love], used often as a form of address (Vine 110); dearly beloved (Williams).
[ 69 ]PARAKALOO HOOS PAROIKOUS, I exhort [you] as sojourners (Marshall 913); the most frequent word with the meaning beseech, literally, denotes to call to one's side, hence, to call to one's aid . . . a stronger force than AITEOO [ask] [as] sojourners, denotes dwellers beside, among or by [PARA beside, OIKEOO to dwell] (Vine 111, 112); I urge that as outsiders (Lenski 105); I beg you as aliens (Williams).
[ 70 ]KAI PAREPIDEEMOUS, and aliens (Marshall 913); an adjective signifying "sojourning in a strange place, away from one's own people" [PARA from, expressing a contrary condition, EPIDEEMEOO to sojourn; DEMOS a people], pilgrims [coupled with PAROIKOUS aliens, sojourners], the word is thus used metaphorically of those to whom Heaven is their own country, and who are sojourners on earth (Vine 855); and foreigners (Lenski 105); and exiles (Williams).
[ 71 ]APECHESTHAI TOON SARKIKOON EPITHUMIOON, to abstain from fleshly lusts (Marshall 913); APECHESTHAI is the present middle infinitive of APECHOO (Han 418); hold oneself from [APO from, ECHOMAI the middle voice of ECHOO to have, that is, to keep oneself from], in the NT, invariably refers to evil practices, moral and ceremonial; of the nature of the flesh, sensual (Vine 8, 438, 697); to keep on abstaining from the evil desires of your lower nature (Williams); to hold yourselves aloof from fleshly lusts (Lenski 105); lusts [from EPITHUMIA desire, longing, craving]. When the desire is for an evil thing; or to an inordinate degree, it is usually rendered lust. The idea is to have self-control, not allowing desire to develop into sin [Jas 1:14, 15] (Littrell).
[ 72 ]HAITINES STRATEUONTAI KATA TEES PSUCHEES, which war against the soul (Marshall 913); because they are always at war with the soul (Williams); the compound pronoun [which] denotes a class, of that kind which, classifying all fleshly desires in one category (Vincent 1.645); [STRATOS an encamped army], war, metaphorically, of spiritual conflict (Vine 1209); which are of a kind that campaign against the soul (Lenski 105).
[ 73 ]TEEN ANASTROPHEEN HUMOON ECHONTES KALEEN, the conduct of you having good (Marshall 913); behavior, conduct, is translated "manner of life"; literally, a turning back [ANA back, STREPHOO to turn], conduct, manner of life and character, behavior; [having your behavior] good, fair (Vine 104, 105, 668, 1013); keep on living upright lives (Williams); having your conduct excellent Lenski 105); see notes on 1Pe 1:15, 18; 3:1, 2, 16; 2Pe 2:7; 3:11). Conversation (KJV) is used in the obsolete sense of conduct or behavior (see Webster's Dictionary).
[ 74 ]EN TOIS ETHNESIN, among the nations (Marshall 913); denotes, firstly, a multitude or company; then, a multitude of people of the same nature or genus, a nation, people (Vine 474); among [from EN in]. When its object is plural as here: among, with; in the midst; Gentile from TA ETHNA the nations], non-Christians (Littrell); among the Gentiles (Lenski 105); among the heathen (Williams). Sometimes the word ETHNOS gentiles is used (in the singular) of the Jews; in the plural, of nations other than Israel, the Gentiles.
[ 75 ]HINA EN HOO KATALALOUSIN HUMOON, in order that while they speak against you (Marshall 913); wherein (Vincent 1.645); [KATA against, LALEOO to say], speak against (Vine 1071); in order that in what they speak against you (Lenski 105); so that when they slander you as evil doers (Williams).
[ 76 ]HOOS KAKOPOIOON, as evildoers (Marshall 913; Williams); properly the masculine gender of the adjective, denotes evil-doers [KAKON evil, POIEOO to do] (Vine 381); as doers of baseness (Lenski 105).
[ 77 ]EK TOON KALOON ERGOON, by the [your] good works (Marshall 913); by what they see of your good deeds (Williams); due to your excellent works (Lenski 105).
[ 78 ]EPOPTEUONTES, observing (Marshall 913); when they look upon [them] (Lenski 105); by what they see (Williams); a technical word, meaning one who was admitted to the highest degree of initiation in the Eleusinian mysteries. Here it conveys the idea of personal witness; behold with their own eyes (Vincent 1.645); [EPI upon, and a form of HORAOO to see] of witnessing as a spectator, or overseer (Vine 107).
[ 79 ]DOXASOOSIN TON THEON, they may glorify God (Marshall 913; Lenski 105); they may come to praise God (Williams).
[ 80 ]EN HEEMERA EPISKOPEES, in a day of visitation (Marshall 913); note the similarity of EPISKOPOS bishop, overseer. The day of visitation is the day of looking upon (Vincent 1.645); denotes a [day of] visitation, whether in mercy, Luke 19:44, or in judgment, 1 Peter 2:12 (Vine 1202); a visitation of demonstrations of divine power mostly in the good sense . . . the time of your gracious visitation . . . when the kingdom of Christ visits us . . . 1 Peter 2:12 is understood in this sense by the majority . . . the gracious visitation can manifest itself as protection, care (Arndt 299); inspection, visitation . . . that act by which God looks into and searches out the ways, deeds, character, of men, in order to adjudge them their lot accordingly, whether joyous or sad; inspection, investigation, visitation . . . when he shall search the souls of men, that is, in the time of divine judgment . . . so perhaps 1 Peter 2:12 [see below]; in a good sense, of God's gracious care . . . in which God showed himself gracious toward thee and offered thee salvation through Christ . . . in the time of divine reward, 1 Peter 5:6 . . . also, in the opinion of many commentators, 1 Peter 2:12 [others associate this passage with Luke 19:44 . . . or from the OT compare Genesis 50:24; Job 34:9 (Thayer 242); in the day of visitation (Lenski 105); on the judgment day (Williams); "assize," as used by the New English Bible, is a judicial inquest..
[ 81 ]Here are some examples of various times of "visitation.". "Then Joseph took an oath from the children of Israel, saying, "God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones from here" (Ge 50:25). "Go and gather the elders of Israel together, and say to them, 'The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared to me, saying, "I have surely visited you and seen what is done to you in Egypt" (Ex 3:16). "Remember me, O LORD, with the favor You have toward Your people; Oh, visit me with Your salvation" (Ps 106:4). "What will you do in the day of punishment [of visitation], and in the desolation which will come from afar? To whom will you flee for help? And where will you leave your glory?" (Isa 10:3). "Blessed is the Lord God of Israel, for He has visited and redeemed His people" (Lu 1:68). "Then fear came upon all, and they glorified God, saying, 'A great prophet has risen up among us'; and, 'God has visited His people!'" (Lu 7:16). Jesus approached Jerusalem and wept over it, telling them its destruction was coming "because you did not know the time of your visitation" (Lu 19:44).
[ 82 ]HUPOTAGEETE, submit (Marshall 913; Williams); primarily a military term, rank under [HUPO under, TASSOO to arrange], denotes in the middle or passive voice, subject yourselves, obey, be subject to (Vine 1099); be subject (Lenski 109).
[ 83 ]PASEE ANTHROOPINEE KTISEI, to every human ordinance (Marshall 913); literally, to every human creation or institution (Vincent 1.646); human; applied to things belonging to men . . . or instituted by men (Thayer 46); in contrast to the divine, human institution of the authorities (Arndt 68); to every human institution (Lenski 109); to all human authority (Williams).
[ 84 ]DIA TON KURION, because of the Lord (Marshall 913); for the lord's sake (Williams; Lenski 109).
[ 85 ]EITE BASILEI HOOS HUPERECHONTI, whether to a king as being supreme (Marshall 913); the emperor styled king by Greek writers (Vincent 1.646); used of the Roman Emperor [a command of general application]; this reference to the Emperor is illustrated frequently in the KOINE (Vine 623); whether to a king as supreme (Lenski 109); to the emperor as supreme (Williams).
[ 86 ]EITE HEEGEMOSIN, or to governors (Marshall 913; Lenski 109); a term used for rulers generally (Vine 498); and to governors (Williams).
[ 87 ]HOOS DI' AUTOU PEMPOMENOIS, as through him being sent (Marshall 913); present participle, in the habit of being sent: sent from time to time (Vincent 1.646); sent, of potentates, by God (Vine 1015); as sent by him (Williams); as having been sent through him (Lenski 109).
[ 88 ]EIS EKDIKEESIN KAKOPOIOON, for vengeance of [on] evildoers (Marshall 913); punishment; in Luke 21:22, it is used of the days of vengeance upon the Jewish people; in 1 Peter 2:14, of civil governors as those who are sent of God "for vengeance on evildoers" (Vine 902); vengeance (Vincent 1.646); for vengeance on doers of baseness (Lenski 109); to punish those who do evil (Williams).
[ 89 ]EPAINON DE AGATHOPOIOON, praise but of well-doers (Marshall 913); [EPI upon], denotes approbation, commendation, praise, of the approbation of well-doers by human rulers (Vine 870); and praise on doers of good (Lenski 109); and to reward those who do right (Williams).
[ 90 ]HOTI HOUTOOS ESTIN TO THELEEMA TOU THEOU, because so is the will of God (Marshall 913; Lenski 111); in this way the will of God was discharged (Woods 73); for it is God's will (Williams).
[ 91 ]AGATHOPOIOUNTAS, doing good (Marshall 913); [AGATHOS good, POIEOO to do], doing good in general; literally "well-doing [ones]" (Vine 1220); that by doing good (Lenski 111); that by doing right (Williams).
[ 92 ]PHIMOUN, to silence (Marshall 913); a very graphic word, meaning to muzzle or gag (Vincent 1.646); you should silence (Williams); muzzle (Vine 1044); you muzzle (Lenski 111).
[ 93 ]TEEN AGNOOSIAN, the ignorance (Marshall 913; Lenski 111); signifies not want of acquaintance, but of understanding; a state of ignorance (Vincent 1.646); literally, want of knowledge or perception [akin to AGNOEOO to be ignorant] (Vine 575); want of knowledge, ignorance (Thayer 8); ignorance (Arndt 11); the ignorant talk [literally, the ignorance, but the verb silence implies they are talking] (Williams).
[ 94 ]TOON APHRONOON ANTHROOPOON, of foolish men (Marshall 913; Lenski 111); of the foolish men; the article referring to those just mentioned, who speak against them as evil doers (Vincent 1.646); "without reason" [A negative, PHREEN the mind], want of mental sanity and sobriety, a reckless and inconsiderate habit of mind [Hort] or the lack of common sense perception of the reality of things natural and spiritual . . . or the imprudent ordering of one's life in regard to salvation [Vos] (Vine 443); of foolish people (Williams).
[ 95 ]Stacy Taylor.
[ 96 ]HOOS ELEUTHEROI, as free (Marshall 913; Lenski 111); primarily, of freedom to go wherever one likes, used of freedom from restraint and obligation in general (Vine 470); live like free men (Williams).
[ 97 ]KAI MEE HOOS ECHONTES, and not as having (Marshall 913; Lenski 111); literally, having or holding (Vincent 1.646); [not] having (Vine 1190); only do not make (Williams).
[ 98 ]TEEN ELEUTHERIAN, the freedom (Marshall 913); liberty (Vine 461); this freedom (Lenski 111); your freedom (Williams).
[ 99 ]EPIKALUMMA TEES KAKIAS, a cloak the of evil (Marshall 913); literally, a veil (Vincent 1.647); cover up or over, a cloak (Vine 244); as a veil for baseness (Lenski 111); a pretext for doing evil (Williams).
[ 100 ]ALL' HOOS THEOU DOULOI, but as of God slaves (Marshall 913); an adjective, signifying "in bondage," used as a noun, and as the most common and general word for "servant," frequently indicating subjection without the idea of bondage; metaphorically of spiritual, moral and ethical conditions; servants of God (Vine 1019); but as slaves of God (Lenski 111); but live like slaves of God (Williams).
[ 101 ]PANTAS TIMEESATE, all men honor ye (Marshall 913); primarily a valuing, hence, objectively honor, esteem, to be given to all to whom it is due (Vine 560); honor all! (Lenski 113); show honor to everyone (Williams).
[ 102 ]TEEN ADELPHOTEETA AGAPATE, the brotherhood love (Marshall 914); Christian love, whether exercised toward the brethren, or toward men generally, is not an impulse from the feelings, it does not always run with the natural inclinations, nor does it spend itself only upon those for whom some affinity is discovered (Vine 693); keep loving the brotherhood! (Lenski 113); practice love for the brotherhood (Williams).
[ 103 ]TON THEON PHOBEISTHE, God fear (Marshall 914); a comprehensive phrase: the reverential fear of God will inspire a constant carefulness in dealing with others in His fear (Vine 414); practice reverence to God (Williams); keep fearing God! (Lenski 114).
[ 104 ]Hebrew YIRAH reverence (Woods 75).
[ 105 ]TON BASILEA TIMATE, the king honor (Marshall 914); the duty of Christians to honor the king (Vine 561); king, of the Roman emperor (Arndt 136); leader of the people, prince, commander, lord of the land, king, of a Roman emperor (Thayer 98); keep honoring the king! (Lenski 114); and honor to the Emperor (Williams).
[ 106 ]HOI OIKETAI, house servants (Marshall 914); household servants (Vincent 1.647); house-servants [OIKEOO to dwell, OIKOS a house] (Vine 1020); [from OIKETAI household servants specifically] (Littrell); your house servants (Williams); the houseslaves (Lenski 114).
[ 107 ]When the church of Christ was established on Pentecost, there were millions of slaves in the Roman empire. When slave-owners obeyed the gospel and began to grow in the likeness of Christ, they had a strong desire to treat their slaves honorably and even to free them. This attitude developed so widely that slavery was eventually abolished. One might say the love of Christ constrained them to end the awful practice of human bondage.
[ 108 ]HUPOTASSOMENOI TOIS DESPOTAIS, submitting yourselves to the [your] masters (Marshall 914); primarily a military term, rank under [HUPO under, TASSOO to arrange], denotes in the middle or passive voice, subject yourselves, obey, be subject to (Vine 1099); must be submissive to your masters (Williams); continuing in subjection to the masters (Lenski 114).
[ 109 ]EN PANTI PHOBOO, in all fear (Marshall 914; Lenski 114); reverential fear of superiors (Vine 414); and show them perfect respect (Williams).
[ 110 ]OU MONON TOIS AGATHOIS, not only to the good (Marshall 914; Lenski 114); that which, being good in its character or constitution, is beneficial in its effect; used in a moral sense, in a general application (Vine 493); not only to those who are kind (Williams).
[ 111 ]KAI EPIEIKESIN, and forbearing (Marshall 914); [from EIKOS reasonable], not being unduly rigorous . . . according to Aristotle, in contrast with AKRIBODIKAIOS, one who is exactingly just, as one who is satisfied with less than his due (Vincent 1.647); [EPI unto, EIKOS, likely], denotes seemly, fitting, hence, equitable, fair, moderate, forbearing, not insisting on the letter of the law; it expresses that considerateness that looks "humanely and reasonably at the facts of a case" (Vine 474, 475); and gentle (Lenski 114); and fair (Williams) see extensive notes on Philippians 4:5.
[ 112 ]ALLA KAI TOIS SKOLIOIS, but also to the perverse (Marshall 914; Lenski 114); literally, crooked (Vincent 1.647); curved, crooked, metaphorically, of what is morally crooked, perverse, froward, of tyrannical or unjust masters; in this sense it is set in contrast to AGATHOS good (Vine 248); unfair [from SKOLIOS crooked], figuratively, dishonest, unscrupulous (Littrell); but also to those who are cruel (Williams).
[ 113 ]TOUTO GAR CHARIS, for this [is] a favor (Marshall 914); grace, indicating favor on the part of the giver, thanks on the part of the receiver, rendered "acceptable" Vine 13); neuter singular, this thing, refers to that immediately preceding--obedience to wicked and oppressive masters (Woods 77); for this is grace (Lenski 116); for it is pleasing (Williams).
[ 114 ]EI DIA, if because (Marshall 914; Lenski 116); for (Williams).
[ 115 ]SUNEIDEESIN THEOU, of conscience of God (Marshall 914); the idea is not conscientiousness in the ordinary sense, but the conscious sense of one's relation to God; his consciousness of God (Vincent 1.647); signifies a conscience [or perhaps here, a consciousness] so controlled by the apprehension of God's presence, that the person realizes that griefs are to be borne in accordance with His will (Vine 220); in the sight of God (Williams); of consciousness of God (Lenski 116).
[ 116 ]HUPOPHEREI TIS LUPAS, bears anyone griefs (Marshall 914); [a strengthened form of PHEROO to bear], bears or carries, by being under, metaphorically of enduring griefs, pain, of body or mind [plural]; stands, by metonymy, for things that cause sorrow, grievances (Vine 359, 508); one bears up under griefs (Lenski 116); for one to bear his sorrows (Williams).
[ 117 ]PASCHOON ADIKOOS, suffering unjustly (Marshall 914); suffer, undergo evils, be afflicted (Thayer 494); taking wrong, suffering wrongfully, suffering [oneself] to be wronged (Vine 1253); though suffering innocently (Williams); suffering wrongfully (Lenski 116).
[ 118 ]POION GAR KLEOS, for what glory [is it]? (Marshall 914); literally, what kind of glory (Vincent 1.648); what credit is it, if (Arndt 434); glory, praise (Thayer 348); for what credit is it? (Williams); for what sort of reputation [is it]? (Lenski 116).
[ 119 ]KAI KOLAPHIZOMENOI, and being buffeted (Marshall 914); present passive participle, repeatedly pummeled, perhaps literally here to indicate the type and extent of the punishment slaves often received from their "froward" masters (Woods 77); struck with the fist (Vincent 1.648); struck with the fist, given a blow with the fist . . . as a specific term for a general, which is, are maltreated, treated with violence and contumely (Thayer 353); and getting cuffed (Lenski 116); and are beaten for it (Williams).
[ 120 ]In Matthew 26:67, the record says the Jews EKOLAPHISAN violently maltreated Jesus (Marshall 125). Compare this with the brutal treatment received by servants in 1 Peter 2:20.
[ 121 ]EI HAMARTANONTES, if sinning (Marshall 914; Lenski 116); of the violation of civil laws, which Christians regard as also the transgression of divine law (Thayer 30); if you do wrong (Williams).
[ 122 ]HUPOMENEITE, ye endure (Marshall 914); endure, bear bravely and calmly: absolutely, ill-treatment (Thayer 644); and patiently [suffer] for it (Williams); you shall stand it (Lenski 116).
[ 123 ]ALL' EI AGATHOPOIOUNTES, but if doing good (Marshall 914); to do good [AGATHOS good, POIEOO to do, of such activity in general (Vine 1220); but if you do right (Williams); but if doing good (Lenski 116).
[ 124 ]KAI PASCHONTES, and suffering (Marshall 914); suffer through mal-treatment (Vine 1103); and patiently suffer for it (Williams); and suffering (Lenski 116).
[ 125 ]HUPOMENEITE, ye endure (Marshall 914); literally, an abiding under [HUPO under, MENOO to abide], patience, under undeserved affliction (Vine 840); and patiently [suffer] for it (Williams); you shall stand it (Lenski 116).
[ 126 ]TOUTO CHARIS PARA THEOO, this [is] a favor with God (Marshall 914); denotes (a) objectively, grace in a person, graciousness, (b) subjectively, (1) grace on the part of a giver, favor, kindness (2) a sense of favor received, thanks (Vine 414); it is pleasing in the sight of God (Williams); this [is] favor with God (Lenski 116).
[ 127 ]EIS TOUTO GAR EKLEETHEETE, to this for ye were called (Marshall 914); called, metaphorically, invited that ye may be in one body, that is, be members of one and the same body, Colossians 3:15 (Thayer 321); for this you were called (Lenski 118); indeed, it was to this kind of living that you were called (Williams).
[ 128 ]HOTI KAI CHRISTOS EPATHEN HUPER HUMOON, because indeed Christ suffered on behalf of you (Marshall 914); literally, even Christ suffered for you (Woods 78); for, that is, for [your] safety, for [your] advantage or benefit. Since what is done for one's advantage frequently cannot be done without acting in his stead [just as the apostles teach that the death of Christ inures to our salvation because it has the force of an expiatory sacrifice and was suffered in our stead], we easily understand how HUPER, like the Latin PRO and our for, comes to signify in the place of, instead of (Thayer 638, 639); for, in behalf of [you] (Arndt 838); because Christ also suffered for you (Williams); because also Christ suffered in your behalf (Lenski 118).
[ 129 ]HUMIN HUPOLIMPANOON, to you leaving behind (Marshall 914); [a late form for LEIPOO to leave], leaving [us an example] (Vine 656); [a common form of the verb LEIPOO], leaving, leaving behind (Thayer 644); leaving you (Williams); leaving behind for you (Lenski 118).
[ 130 ]HUPOGRAMMON, an example (Marshall 914; Williams); a graphic word, meaning a copy set by writing-masters for their pupils. Some explain it as a copy of characters over which the student is to trace the lines (Vincent 1.648); literally, an under-writing [from HUPOGRAPHOO to write under, to trace letters for copying by scholars]; hence, a writing-copy, 1 Peter 2:21, said of what Christ left for believers, by His sufferings [not expiatory, but exemplary], that they might "follow His steps" (Vine 384); example [from HUPOGRAMMOS a copy to write after], figurative, an example for imitation, a pattern (Littrell); a writing-copy (Lenski 118).
[ 131 ]HINA EPAKOLOUTHEESEETE, in order that ye should follow (Marshall 914); literally, follow upon. The compound verb implies close following (Vincent 1.648); to follow after, close upon [EPI upon, AKOLOUTHEOO, a follower], of following the steps of Christ (Vine 441); that you might follow (Williams); in order that you may follow (Lenski 118).
[ 132 ]TOIS ICHNESIN AUTOU, the steps of him (Marshall 914); footsteps, tracks, used metaphorically of the steps of Christ's conduct (Vine 1086); from ICHNOS the heel of a shoe; also, a footprint (Woods 79); His footsteps (Williams); his tracks (Lenski 118).
[ 133 ]HOS HAMARTIAN OUK EPOIEESEN, who sin not did (Marshall 914); Christ is predicated as having been without sin in every respect (Vine 1046); "did" is from EPOIEESEN, aorist tense of POIEOO, with the negative signifying that never in a single instance, did Jesus commit sin (Woods 79); he the One who did not do sin (Lenski 118); He never committed a sin (Williams).
[ 134 ]OUDE HEURETHEE DOLOS EN TOO STOMATI AUTOU, nor was found guile in the mouth of him (Marshall 914); HEURETHEE is stronger than the simple was, and indicating a guilelessness which had stood the test of scrutiny (Vincent 1.648); primarily a bait, snare; hence, craft, deceit, guile, of the guileless speech of Christ (Vine 271); "found" is from a word [EURISKOO] which means to search diligently (Woods 80); neither was guile found in his mouth (Lenski 118); and deceit was never found on His lips (Williams).
[ 135 ]HOS LOIDOROUMENOS, who being reviled (Marshall 914; Lenski 118); LOIDOROUMENOS is the present passive participle, nominative singular masculine of LOIDOREOO (Han 419); to revile, reproach (Zodhiates 926); imperfect tense, constantly reviled (Woods 80); abused, reviled (Vine 965); although He was abused (Williams).
[ 136 ]OUK ANTELOIDOREI, reviled not in return (Marshall 914); third person singular, imperfect active indicative of ANTILOIDOREOO (Han 419); perfect tense [did not] continue to revile (Woods 80); [did not] revile back or again [ANTI opposite, LOIDOREOO to abuse, revile] (Vine 966); He never retorted (Williams); kept not reviling in turn (Lenski 118).
[ 137 ]PASCHOON, suffering (Marshall 914; Lenski 118); present active participle, nominative singular masculine of PASCHOO (Han 419); of the sufferings of Christ at the hands of men (Vine 1103); although He continued to suffer (Williams).
[ 138 ]OUK EEPEILEI, he threatened not (Marshall 914); threatened [not], used of Christ, negatively (Vine 1145); He never threatened (Williams); kept not threatening (Lenski 118).
[ 139 ]PAREDIDOU DE, but delivered [himself] (Marshall 914); PAREDIDOU is third person singular, imperfect active indicative of PARADIDOOMI (Han 429); but this gives a reflexive force to the verb which has no parallel. Commentators are divided, some supplying his cause; others, his judgment; others, his revilers. Better, the subject of the contest--his insults and injuries (Vincent 1.648, 649); in the sense of delivering or entrusting something to a person, gave over to God (Vine 203); kept on committing himself to God (Woods 80); but kept committing [himself] (Lenski 118); but committed His case (Williams).
[ 140 ]TOO KRINONTI DIKAIOOS, to the [one] judging righteously (Marshall 914); KRINONTI is the present active participle, dative singular masculine of KRINOO (Han 419); adverb, righteously (Vine 970); to Him who judges justly (Williams); to the One judging righteously (Lenski 118).
[ 141 ]HOS AUTOS, who [him]self (Marshall 914); He (Williams); he the One who his own self (Lenski 118).
[ 142 ]TAS HAMARTIAS HEEMOON ANEENENKEN, the sins of us carried up (Marshall 914); bare up to the cross, as to an altar, and offered himself thereon (Vincent 1.649); with ANA up, is used of leading persons up to a higher place . . . used twice of the Lord's propitiatory sacrifice, in His bearing sins on the Cross (Vine 93). The word is used in the Septuagint to designate the act of the priest in offering sacrifices on the altar [Le 14:20]. It is used in the NT to describe such offerings [Heb 7:27] and used of Abraham's offering up of Isaac [Jas 2:21] and Christ's bearing of sins [Heb 9:28] (Kelcy 61); carried up our sins (Lenski 118); bore our sins (Williams).
[ 143 ]Some see in this a likeness to the scapegoat which Israel's sins were carried away, removed and remembered no more (see Le 16:8, 10, 26).
[ 144 ]EN TOO SOOMATI AUTOU, in the body of him (Marshall 914); in His own body (Williams); in his body (Lenski 118).
[ 145 ]EPI TO XULON, onto the tree (Marshall 914); literally, wood (Vincent 1.649); wood, a piece of wood, anything made of wood, of the Cross, the tree being the STAUROS, the upright pale or stake to which Romans nailed those who were thus to be executed (Vine 1165); wood, that which is made of wood, as a beam from which any one is suspended, a gibbet, a cross (Thayer 432); wood, every kind of citron wood, very precious wood, wood as building material, objects made of wood, of the wooden stocks for the feet of a prisoner, gallows, in NT cross (Arndt 549); cross [from XULON wood, timber, a post, cross, tree]; the usual word [for cross] is STAUROS (Littrell); on the wood (Lenski 118); on the cross [Peter used wood, or tree, for cross] (Williams).
[ 146 ]A gallows is generally a frame with two upright poles and a crossbeam from which criminals are hanged. A very general definition might be a structure consisting of upright wood with a crosspiece. Does anyone really suppose that "gallows" is an acceptable translation for XULOU? I do not.
[ 147 ]HINA TAIS HAMARTIAIS APOGENOMENOI, in order that to sins dying (Marshall 914); having died. The rendering of the verb can be given only in a clumsy way, having become off unto sins; not becoming separate from sins, but having ceased to exist as regards them (Vincent 1.649); literally, be away from [APO from, GINOMAI to be, become; APO here signifies separation], of the believer's attitude towards sin as the result of Christ's having borne our sins in His body on the Tree, the aorist or momentary tense, expressing an event in the past (Vine 301); having died is in the aorist tense, and thus refers to a definite and consummated act of renunciation of sin occurring in repentance and the reformation which follows. The word "died" in this clause is an unusual one, occurring nowhere else in the scriptures. Its literal meaning is "having ceased to be" (Woods 83, 84); that we might die to sin (Williams); in order that, having ceased to exist for sins (Lenski 118).
[ 148 ]TEE DIKAIOSUNEE ZEESOOMEN, to righteousness we might live (Marshall 914); to live, devote the life, to righteousness (Thayer 149); righteousness, uprightness as the compelling motive for the conduct of one's whole life; since DIKAIOSUNEE constitutes the specific virtue of Christians, the word becomes almost equivalent to Christianity (Arndt 196, 197); we may live for righteousness (Lenski 118); and live to uprightness (Williams).
[ 149 ]HOU TOO MOOLOOPI IATHEETE, of whom by bruise ye were cured (Marshall 914); literally, bruise . . . meaning a bloody wale which arises under a blow (Vincent 1.649); a bruised and swollen welt from which blood trickles, the livid marks on the quivering flesh, red and raw, from scourging (Woods 84); a bruise, a wound from a stripe, literally, in the original, "by whose bruise," not referring to Christ's scourging, but figurative of the stroke of Divine judgment administered vicariously to Him on the cross [a comforting reminder to these Christian servants, who were not infrequently buffeted (verse 20) by their masters (Vine 1096); by His wounds you have been healed (Williams); with whose stripes you were healed (Lenski 118).
[ 150 ]See Zondervan 761.
[ 151 ]EETE GAR HOOS PROBATA PLANOOMENOI, ye were For as sheep wandering (Marshall 915); that is, as commonly understood, ye were like straying sheep. But the ye were should be construed with the participle going astray, the verb and the participle together denoting habitual action or condition: ye were going astray like sheep (Vincent 1.649); passive voice, [were being] led astray, erring (Vine 369); for once you were going astray like sheep (Williams); for you were as sheep wandering astray (Lenski 125).
[ 152 ]The word for "mistaken" in Mark 12:24 is PLANASTHE, a related word to PLANOOMENOI, "going astray" in 1 Peter 2:25.
[ 153 ]ALLA EPESTRAPHEETE NUN, but ye turned now (Marshall 915); EPESTRAPHEETE is second person plural, second aorist passive indicative of EPISTREPHOO (Han 419); [but now you have] turned about, or towards (Vine 963); aorist tense, passive voice, middle sense, indicating a single act and a definite time when they returned--at their conversion (Woods 85); but turned yourselves now (Lenski 125); but now you have returned (Williams).
[ 154 ]EPI TON POIMENA, to the Shepherd (Marshall 915; Williams; Lenski 125); metaphorically of Christ (Vine 1032).
[ 155 ]KAI EPISKOPON, and bishop (Marshall 915); literally, an overseer [EPI over, SKOPEOO to look or watch] . . . Christ Himself is spoken of as "the . . . Bishop of our souls," (Vine 121); and Overseer (Williams; Lenski 125).
[ 156 ]TOON PSUCHOON HUMOON, of the souls of you (Marshall 915); the equivalent of the personal pronoun, used for emphasis and effect, second person (Vine 1067); of your souls (Williams; Lenski 125).

Copyright ©2003, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington, U.S.A.
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.

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