The first chapter[ 1 ] of Peter's second epistle begins with greetings to people of like-precious faith. Readers are reminded that all things pertaining to life and godliness are through Christ. In order to keep from falling away from the faith, Christians add seven graces. Peter writes of his own coming death and his desire to leave a permanent reminder after his decease. He relates his experience on the Mount of Transfiguration that gave strong confirmation of his belief in Christ and in the revealed word of God (see chart 2 PETER 1 OUTLINE).
Chart 2 PETER 1 OUTLINE
- Greetings to those of like-precious faith (2Pe 1:1-2).
- Life and godliness through Christ (2Pe 1:3, 4).
- Add Christian virtues (2Pe 1:5-11).
- Peter's death imminent (2Pe 1:12-15).
- Eyewitnesses made prophecy more sure (2Pe 1:16-21).
1:1-4 Simon Peter, a bondservant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who have obtained like precious faith with us by the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ: 2 Grace and peace be multiplied to you in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord, 3 as His divine power has given to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of Him who called us by glory and virtue, 4 by which have been given to us exceedingly great and precious promises, that through these you may be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.
Simon Peter [Simeon Peter].[ 2 ] The apostle's name was Simon before Jesus gave him the name Peter (see Mt 4:18; 16:17; Mk 3:16; Joh 1:42). In the Jerusalem meeting, James called him "Symeon" or "Simeon"[ 3 ] as here (see Ac 15:14).
A bondservant and apostle [bondman, a servant, and an apostle].[ 4 ] Instead of calling himself "Head of the Church," Peter uses an adjective signifying "in bondage" as Paul often did (see Ro 1:1; Ga 1:10; Php 1:1; Tit 1:1). Peter was among the first apostles chosen (see Mk 1:16-20; Lu 5:1-11). Perhaps because he was older, his name appears first in all the apostolic lists (see Mt 10:2-4; Mk 3:16-19; Lu 6:14-16; Ac 1:13, 14). He was an important disciple but certainly not a Pope.
Of Jesus Christ.[ 5 ] There is no merit in being a slave unless one serves the Lord, as do all Christians (see Ro 6:18-22; 1Co 7:22; Eph 6:6; Col 3:24; 1Pe 2:16).
To those who have obtained [to them that have received].[ 6 ] The Greek is "obtained by lot" and suggests the preciousness of the blessing of faith, freely obtained and totally unmerited. Christians are grateful that they had the privilege of hearing the gospel that engendered faith in their hearts (Ro 10:17).
Like precious faith [a faith of equal standing, the same, a like, precious faith].[ 7 ] The faith of the least member of the Lord's church is "like" that of the greatest member (see chart LIKE-PRECIOUS FAITH). An interesting alternative rendering is: "To the ones equally precious with us."[ 8 ]
Chart LIKE-PRECIOUS FAITH
- Shared by apostles and all Christians (Ro 1:12; Tit 1:1; 2Pe 1:1).
- Justified by faith (Ro 5:1).
- "I believed and therefore I spoke," we also believe and therefore speak (2Co 4:13).
- By grace you have been saved through faith (Eph 2:8).
With us [with ours].[ 9 ] Christians, both Jews and Gentiles, share the same kind of faith the apostles had. Peter spoke of the Gentiles when he said:
So God, who knows the heart, acknowledged them by giving them the Holy Spirit, just as He did to us, 9 and made no distinction between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith (Ac 15:7, 9).
But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved in the same manner as they (Ac 15:11).
By the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ [in, through, the righteousness of our God and the, our, Savior Jesus Christ].[ 10 ] God's commandments are righteousness (see Ps 119:172). The fulfillment of His promises is a manifest facet of His righteousness (see Ne 9:8). What He did to effect the salvation of mankind is a prominent aspect of His righteousness (see note on Ro 1:17). The righteousness and justice of God are shown in His giving salvation to both Jews and Gentiles by means of the suffering Savior (compare Ro 3:5, 21, 22; 10:3; 2Co 5:21; Jas 1:20). God's commandments and promises are alluded to here but more especially what He did for salvation.
GRACE AND PEACE
[1:2] Grace and peace be multiplied to you [may grace and peace be multiplied unto you, grace to you and peace be multiplied].[ 11 ] A Christian's life unfolds like a rose. In proportion to growth in the knowledge of the Lord, one realizes greater and greater grace and peace.
In the knowledge [through a, the, full knowledge].[ 12 ] In the present verse, "knowledge" is from a Greek word that means full or complete knowledge. Christians are not satisfied with first principles. They want to go on unto maturity, to perfection!
Chart DIVINE POWER
- Gospel is power of God for salvation (Ro 1:16).
- The message of the cross is the power of God (1Co 1:18).
- Newness of life effected in baptism "by the glory of the Father" (Ro 6:4).
- Christians are kept by the power of God through faith (1Pe 1:5).
- His divine power has given to us all things that pertain to life and godliness (2Pe 1:3).
Of God and of Jesus our Lord.[ 13 ] Like bodily exercise, education in the arts and sciences has some value, but the value of an education in the Holy Scriptures transcends all other learning (compare 1Ti 4:8). The mention of God and Jesus together suggests but does not prove the Deity of Christ.
ALL THINGS THAT PERTAIN TO LIFE AND GODLINESS
[1:3] As His divine power [His, who by his, according as his, seeing that his, divine power].[ 14 ] In verse 1, it was noted that the blessing of faith is provided through the righteousness of God (compare Ro 1:16, 17). In the present verse, blessings come through "His divine power."
Has given to us [hath granted us, unto us].[ 15 ] The apostles looked to God the Father and His Son Jesus Christ for every spiritual blessing (see Mt 10:19 Joh 17:11-24 Ac 5:32; Ro 12:3; 15:15; 1Co 2:12, 13; 3:10; 2Co 1:22; 5:5, 18; 13:10; Ga 2:9; Eph 1:3; 3:2, 7, 8; 6:19; Col 1:25; 1Th 4:8; 2Pe 3:15; 1Jo 5:20). Christians today no longer perform miracles to confirm the word but all Christians receive untold spiritual blessings from God (all things that pertain to life and godliness).
Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and comes down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or shadow of turning (Jas 1:17).
All things that pertain to life [all things relating, which relate, unto life].[ 16 ] In the first century, special gifts to the apostles and others brought the gospel of life and godliness to mankind include utterance and wisdom (Lu 21:15), all the truth (Joh 16:13) and miraculous power of the Holy Spirit (Ac 2:1-4; 2Co 12:12).
Chart RICHES OF KNOWLEDGE
- Produces grace and peace (2Pe 1:2).
- Neither barren nor unfruitful (2Pe 1:8).
- By it one escapes from those who live in error (2Pe 2:18).
- Grow in grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (2Pe 3:18).
In a larger sense, God has made available to each one in Christ every spiritual blessing. Through the knowledge of Christ, He has granted to them everything that appertains to a rich and abundant spiritual life on earth as well as glorious eternal life in heaven (Mk 10:30; Joh 10:10). All they need to obtain a full knowledge of God and their responsibility to Him is revealed in the Bible (see 2Ti 3:16, 17; Ac 6:7; Ga 1:23; Jude 3; chart RICHES OF KNOWLEDGE).
And godliness.[ 17 ] "Godliness" describes the kind of life that grows out of sincere worship of God. Abundant life is associated with it. There is no guarantee against pain or persecution but there is an assurance of great joy in the Lord's service.
Through the knowledge of Him [through the knowledge of him].[ 18 ] The human ingredient in attaining all things that pertain to life and godliness is the acquisition of full and complete knowledge.
- According to His purpose (Ro 8:28).
- Into fellowship with His Son (1Co 1:9).
- By the gospel (2Th 2:14).
- Out of darkness into His marvelous light (1Pe 2:9).
- To follow the steps of Christ (1Pe 2:21).
- To inherit a blessing (1Pe 3:9).
- To His eternal glory in Christ (1Pe 5:10).
Who called us [that, that has, hath, called us].[ 19 ] The kind of knowledge that brings rich blessings of God to one's life does not come through secular education but rather an education in the word of Him "who called us." The primary allusion is to the call of the apostles. This meaning is made clear by the distinction between "us" and "you" in 2 Peter in the verse 4.
Sinners are called by the gospel through which they are saved if they believe and obey (Mk 16:15, 16; Ro 1:16; 2Th 2:14). The purpose of the calling is to be forgiven, to obtain new life in Christ Jesus and reach heaven at last (see Ro 6:3-6, 17, 18; 2Co 5:17; charts CALLED and YOUR CALLING at verse 10).
By glory [to, to his own, by his own, glory].[ 20 ] If one reads the text "to glory," it may refer to the glory of the apostolic office (see Mt 19:28) as well as the "glory that is to be revealed" in eternity (1Pe 5:1). The apostles were called "to" His splendid glory and virtue. If, on the other hand, the meaning is "by" we understand that Christ's attractiveness "by" His own resplendent glory and virtue. By these wonderful traits He calls people to Himself (see Joh 12:32, 33).
And virtue [and excellence].[ 21 ] The office of the apostles was one of excellence, virtue, nobility and courage (see Ac 4:29). Divine power was manifested in the their work.
[1:4] By which [whereby, through whom].[ 22 ] "By which" undoubtedly alludes to the glory and virtue of Christ.
Have been given to us [he gave us, has, hath, granted, are given, unto us].[ 23 ] Not only were promises given to the apostles (see Joh 13-16) but these promises were fulfilled (see note on All things that pertain to life at verse 3).
Exceedingly great [great, his very great, exceeding great, the greatest].[ 24 ] The promises of God are great in scope. The gospel is for all (Mk 16:15). Its promises are great in duration. They are great in that everyone will be raised from the dead. They are great in that faithful Christians will live forever with Him (Joh 5:28, 29; Heb 10:14; 1Jo 2:17; Re 22:5). They are great in that they have been or will be completely fulfilled. They are great because of the magnificent blessings they offer.
And precious promises.[ 25 ] God's promises were voluntarily made. They did not come about because of any merit or device of man (see note on verse 21). They are precious because their fulfillment affords life eternal. They are precious because of their wonderful dependability and excellent value.
That through these [that by these]. The antecedent of "these" is "precious promises."
PARTAKERS OF DIVINE NATURE
You may be partakers of the divine nature [ye might be, you may become, partakers of, we may have fellowship with, the divine nature].[ 26 ] Peter introduces a transitional thought. Notice the change in pronouns from "us" to "you." The scope of his language changes from the apostles to include Gentiles and, then, believers in general. He is about to explain the benefits of the Lord's promises to all Christians. Those who are "partakers of " or have "fellowship with" the divine nature are filled with the fullness of God (Eph 3:19). They "abide in the doctrine of Christ" and have fellowship with the Father and the Son (2Jo 9). The Greek verb implies growth in this relationship. As a result of the divine promises, becoming a son of God is of inestimable value (see 1Jo 3:1, 2).
In some way Christians become like Him with whom they are in fellowship. This likeness begins on earth and is completed in "the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ" (see verse 11). It is made possible by the forgiveness of sins, by remaining faithful and by the adding of the Christ-like graces (see verses 5-8; Re 2:10).
Having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust [and escape from the corruption that is in the world because of passion, by lust].[ 27 ] The Greek verb "escaped" suggests escape by fleeing. Recall the words of the angel to Lot upon leaving Sodom, "Escape for your life!" (Ge 19:17). Sin is something from which to flee. "Flee sexual immorality!" (1Co 6:18). "Flee also youthful lusts!" (2Ti 2:22).
Moral decay of the world is "corruption." Like quarrelling and war, corruption is caused by the unholy desires of men and women (see Jas 4:1, 2). Christians escape corruption by actions on their part, one of which is by turning off television programs that are corrupt.
SEVEN CHRIST-LIKE VIRTUES
1:5-7 But also for this very reason, giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue, to virtue knowledge, 6 to knowledge self-control, to self-control perseverance, to perseverance godliness, 7 to godliness brotherly kindness, and to brotherly kindness love.
But also for this very reason [for, but for, yea, and for, this very cause also, and beside this, because of this].[ 28 ] Seven virtues are to be supplied in order to partake of and grow in the divine nature.
Giving all diligence [make every effort, using therewith, give, on your part].[ 29 ] It is important to apply genuine effort to add the Christ-like graces. Persistence and perseverance are required. One must make every effort to supply them. He must not neglect or forget about growing in them for a single day.
Add [to supplement, to add, adding].[ 30 ] Developing Christians add, supplement or supply certain things. In turn, entrance into the eternal kingdom will be supplied to them (verse 11). This may seem like an even trade but remember that Christians claim no merit whatever in order to earn heaven.
To your faith virtue [with, in, your faith with, supply, have also, moral excellence].[ 31 ] Faith was the beginning for every baptized Christian. It is that which gave them incentive to desire to please God in everything. Throughout life, faith accompanies and provides motivation for every good work (see Heb 11:6).
In order to remain faithful to the Lord, especially in times of temptation and persecution, Christians to develop "virtue," moral strength, character and courage. "Virtue" is the energy back of the actions of faith. It is a response to God's efforts to change people into what He wants them to be. God works in Christians but they must exert a strong effort as well.
Therefore, my beloved, as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; 13 for it is God who works in you both to will and to do for His good pleasure (Php 2:12, 13)
To virtue knowledge [in, and, and to, with the, in your moral excellence, with, add, knowledge].[ 32 ] Knowledge of God and Christ is increased by a diligent study of the Word (1Pe 2:1, 2; Joh 8:31, 32; 2Ti 2:15). Some modern writers have imagined that Christians need a personal knowledge of Christ but not particularly of His word. Think about it. How can one know Christ apart from His word? He dwells in the heart "through faith" (Eph 3:17). Faith comes by reading or hearing the word (Joh 20:30, 31; Ro 10:17). A more perfect instruction in the word of God gives a greater knowledge of Christ.
[1:6] To knowledge self-control [in, and, and to, and with, your knowledge with, add temperance].[ 33 ] Self-control involves the thoughts (2Co 10:5), the tongue (Jas 3:8), the desires of the flesh and mind including those relating to food, drink, sex and survival (see Mt 5:28; Eph 2:3). Everyone who competes in the games "is temperate in all things" (1Co 9:25). He thus exercises self-control. Christians bring their desires, even every thought, under control (see 2Co 10:5). Paul, as a spiritual athlete, wrote:
But I discipline my body and bring it into subjection, lest, when I have preached to others, I myself should become disqualified (1Co 9:27).
To self-control perseverance [and, and to, and with, in your, self-control, temperance, patience, with, add, steadfastness, endurance].[ 34 ] Perseverance is not like forcing someone to endure a jail term. Instead it is voluntary. It usually involves a heroic bearing of pain or distress for the righteous cause of Christ.
To perseverance godliness [in, and, and to, and with, in your, steadfastness, patience, endurance, with, add, godliness].[ 35 ] The Bible nowhere ascribes godliness to God, Christ or the Holy Spirit (but compare 1Ti 3:16; 2Pe 1:3; 3:11). Because of the etymology of the English word, some have mistakenly said that "godliness" is "God-likeness." The term does mean pious or devout but the Greek word implies worshipping well. That is, the sincere and correct worship of a Christian is carried over into daily life. Godliness is not a stiff, artificial piety nor adherence to a stuffy creed. It is the religion of the good Samaritan and the daily discipline of the apostle Paul.
[1:7] To godliness brotherly kindness [in, and, and to, and with, in your, godliness with, add, brotherly love, affection].[ 36 ] "Let brotherly love continue" (see notes on Heb 13:1; Ga 6:10).
Chart LOVE (A)
- Love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another (Joh 13:34).
- By this all will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another (Joh 13:35)
- Let all that you do be done with love (1Co 16:14).
- Above all these things put on love (Col 3:14).
Chart LOVE (B)
- And may the Lord make you increase and abound in love to one another and to all (1Th 3:12).
- By this we know love, because He laid down His life for us. And we also ought to lay down our lives for the brethren (1Jo 3:16).
- We love Him because He first loved us (1Jo 4:19).
Be kindly affectionate to one another with brotherly love, in honor giving preference to one another (Ro 12:10).
And to brotherly kindness love [in, and, and with, in your, brotherly love, affection, charity, with, add, love].[ 37 ] "Love" and "brotherly kindness" are somewhat alike but there are subtle differences. "Brotherly kindness" is from a Greek word that means a warm, emotional friendship whereas "love" is from a different word that describes a deeper sense of compassion and love such as God has for people (see Joh 3:16; 21:15-17). Increasing in love is as important as breathing. It makes one more like Christ. It enables God to establish hearts unblamable in holiness at the judgment day (1Th 3:13; see charts LOVE A and B).
NEITHER BARREN NOR UNFRUITFUL
1:8 For if these things are yours and abound, you will be neither barren nor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.
For if these things are yours and abound [for, for if these, existing, are, be, in you, and abounding in you].[ 38 ] In the present verse, "if" is conditional. The subsequent blessings Peter lists are dependent upon meeting the preceding prerequisites.
A Christian who is just holding his own, keeping house for the Lord or drifting along is in serious danger. His condition cannot be pleasing to the Savior (see Re 3:16). A sincere Christian abounds in every good work (2Co 9:8). He or she desires to increase in love (1Th 3:12). He grows in grace and knowledge (2Pe 3:18). Because of his faith and hope, he is motivated to exert daily effort to abound in righteousness and to bear fruit.
You will be neither barren [make, they make, they will make, you to be, keep you from being, that ye shall neither be, ineffective, not idle].[ 39 ] Some translators render the Greek for "useless" or "barren" as "idle." Neglecting the effort to increase in the seven graces makes for an idle or unproductive Christian. None of the graces are entirely passive. By their very nature they are all active. Faith, for example, apart from works, is barren (Jas 2:20). Love must be "in deed and truth" (1Jo 3:18).
Nor unfruitful [or unfruitful, unproductive].[ 40 ] Idleness and neglect do not promote fruit-bearing.
I am the true vine, and My Father is the vinedresser. 2 Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit He takes away; and every branch that bears fruit He prunes, that it may bear more fruit. 3 You are already clean because of the word which I have spoken to you. 4 Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in Me. 5 I am the vine, you are the branches. He who abides in Me, and I in him, bears much fruit; for without Me you can do nothing. 6 If anyone does not abide in Me, he is cast out as a branch and is withered; and they gather them and throw them into the fire, and they are burned (Joh 15:1-6).
And let our people also learn to maintain good works, to meet urgent needs, that they may not be unfruitful (Tit 3:14).
In the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ [as regards, unto, in attaining, a full knowledge, of our Lord Jesus Christ].[ 41 ] J. Armitage Robinson on Ephesians points out that EPIGNOOSIS is "knowledge directed towards a particular object, perceiving, discerning" whereas GNOOSIS is knowledge in the abstract.[ 42 ] Adding knowledge of Christ comes from a concentrated effort to know the Scriptures and to imbibe His very nature and character into one's heart and daily activities.
Chart SPIRITUALLY BLIND
- If the blind leads the blind, both will fall into a ditch (Mt 15:14).
- Fools and blind! For which is greater, the gold or the temple that sanctifies the gold? (Mt 23:17; also verse 19).
- Blind guides, who strain out a gnat and swallow a camel! (Mt 23:24).
- Blind Pharisee, first cleanse the inside of the cup and dish, that the outside of them may be clean also (Mt 23:26).
1:9 For he who lacks these things is shortsighted, even to blindness, and has forgotten that he was cleansed from his old sins.
For he who lacks these things [for whoever, but he that, lacketh, does not have these; with whom these things are not present].[ 43 ] Sadly, it is possible for a baptized believer to fail to develop spiritually. Such a person maintains a deficiency in some or all of the qualities or graces listed.
Is shortsighted even to blindness [is blind, and short-sighted, and, or, cannot see afar off, seeing only what is near].[ 44 ] Jews incorrectly judged other people to be spiritually blind (Ro 2:19). Jesus aptly described the church at Laodicea as "wretched, miserable, poor, blind and naked" (Re 3:17). "Shortsighted" modifies or qualifies "blind." The person in whom the graces are absent does not see or appreciate heavenly things (see Col 3:2, 3; chart SPIRITUALLY BLIND).
Spiritual short-sightedness is, for all practical purposes, equivalent to blindness.
And Jesus said, "For judgment I have come into this world, that those who do not see may see, and that those who see may be made blind" (Joh 9:39).
Not everyone who claims good spiritual eyesight has it. A Christian who does not see the value in the graces and continues in an undeveloping state is so short-sighted that he is essentially blind. He may not be literally and totally without sight but he is so spiritually blind that he minds earthly things instead of looking to Jesus and eternal blessings. He does not see the value of heavenly things.
And has forgotten that he was cleansed [has, and hath, having, forgotten that he was purged, the purging, the cleansing].[ 45 ] One who lacks the graces listed in verses 5-8 is not only seriously near-sighted but he has spiritual Alzheimer's disease. That is, he seems to have little or no conscious memory of having had his sins washed away in baptism (see Ac 22:16; 1Pe 3:21). Did the person alluded to actually and totally forget being saved from his sins? Consider that Peter may be using a figure of speech called hyperbole that exaggerates for emphasis. Surely if coached, the persons alluded to could have recalled their baptism for remission of sins (see Ac 2:38). They just did not think about that event much any more. For all practical purposes, they had forgotten about it.
Purification of sins was accomplished as a result of Christ dying on the cross (see Heb 1:3; 1Pe 1:18, 19; 2:24; 3:18). Everyone who believes and obeys the gospel of Christ is cleansed from sin by the blood of the Lamb. Scripture tells us plainly when this occurs (see Ac 2:38; 1Co 6:11; Eph 5:25-27; Tit 3:5).
From his old sins [of his former sins].[ 46 ] The mention of "old sins" suggests the sins that were practiced while being an alien sinner prior to baptism. Sins committed after baptism are not so designated (see 1Jo 1:8-10). The law of pardon for "old sins" includes hearing the gospel, believing it, repenting of sins, confessing faith in the sweet name of Jesus and being baptized. The second law of pardon for subsequent restoration enjoins repentance, confession of sins and prayer (see Ac 8:22; 1Jo 1:9).
BE EVEN MORE DILIGENT
1:10, 11 Therefore, brethren, be even more diligent to make your call and election sure, for if you do these things you will never stumble; 11 for so an entrance will be supplied to you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.
Therefore, brethren [wherefore, wherefore the rather, brethren].[ 47 ] When writing these letters Peter almost always addresses his readers as "beloved" but this once he just calls them his "brethren" (compare 1Pe 1:22). When Peter spoke publicly, he quite often used "brethren" (see Ac 1:16; 2:29; 3:17; 15:7). He is about to describe the negative spiritual condition of those who had neglected their maturation as Christians.
Be even more diligent [give, be, the more, all the more, zealous, use, give, diligence].[ 48 ] To correct the substandard development of his readers, Peter urges diligence. He began his exhortation about adding the seven virtues with "giving all diligence" (verse 5). He now continues that thought by saying, "Be even more diligent." Only the diligent make certain about their call and election or choosing.
There things for a Christian to do and he must make every effort to do them (see verse 5). Will human effort accomplish anything? Of course. The result of spiritual effort is sure. Serious Christians do not tarry or ignore the urgency of the prescription to act. They take care of this business in a prompt and efficient manner.
Chart YOUR CALLING (A)
- And it shall come to pass in the place where it was said to them, "You are not My people," there they shall be called sons of the living God (Ro 9:26)
- For you see your calling, brethren, that not many wise according to the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called (1Co 1:26).
- I marvel that you are turning away so soon from Him who called you in the grace of Christ, to a different gospel (Ga 1:6).
Chart YOUR CALLING (B)
- To which He called you by our gospel, for the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ (2Th 2:14).
- I press toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus (Php 3:14).
- Therefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling (Heb 3:1).
- But as He who called you is holy, you also be holy in all your conduct (1Pe 1:15); compare 2Ti 1:9).
To make your call and election sure [to confirm your calling and election].[ 49 ] The Greek is, literally, "Make sure for yourselves."[ 50 ] The diligent effort enjoined results in making one's call and election certain, firm and sure. Unbelief, doubt or neglect will never attain this goal (see charts CALLED at verse 3; YOUR CALLING A and B at verse 10).
God's election is effective only for those who cooperate by doing something to make their election certain and sure. They do this by living faithfully, especially by adding the virtues listed. Neglect can cancel one's election or at least make it unsure.
For if you do these things [for doing, for if ye do, these things, this].[ 51 ] The practice of doing "these things" (adding the virtues) will keep a Christian from stumbling and missing heaven (see note below on For so an entrance).
You will never stumble [ye shall never fall].[ 52 ] A spiritually blind or near-sighted person is likely to stumble. He may fall into a pit or a ditch (see Mt 15:14). Peter warned Christians to be on guard lest they be carried away by the error of unprincipled men and fall from their own steadfastness (2Pe 3:17). To avoid falling, one must keep himself in the love of God (Jude 1:21).
God will aid such people to keep them from stumbling (see 1Co 10:13).
Now to Him who is able to keep you from stumbling, and to present you faultless before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy (Jude 1:24).
There is no guarantee that a Christian will never commit a sin (see 1Jo 1:8, 10). In fact, he may stumble in the sense of James 3:2. He may even turn back and be lost forever (Heb 10:39). However, if he faithfully keeps on adding the seven graces he will never fall nor end up in hell.
[1:11] For so an entrance [so, for thus, for in this manner, the entrance].[ 53 ] The only way to enter the eternal heavenly kingdom is God's way. Man may devise other methods such as "faith only" or saying "the sinner's prayer" or "burning candles" but the only true and effective way is that which is revealed in the holy Word of God.
Will be supplied to you abundantly [be, shall be, there will be, richly furnished, provided, ministered, for, unto, you, abundantly].[ 54 ] Some have tried to make the present verse contradict what Peter said in chapter 1 about the righteous scarcely escaping or being saved from persecution (see also 1Pe 4:18). However, it ought to be obvious that here Peter alludes to heaven. Faithful Christians will be richly supplied an entrance into God's presence. Their admission will be full and free. However, in the present context, Peter is saying that by diligently supplying the seven graces in one's life--in this way--the entrance into heaven will be richly supplied.
Into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ [into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ].[ 55 ] A priority of every Christian is to enter the eternal kingdom of heaven. Peter implies that the entrance is conditional upon faithfully adding the seven virtues listed in verses 5-7.
Notice that heaven, the eternal kingdom, is "of Christ" and not of Bahaullah, Buddha, Confucius, Mohammed, Joseph Smith, the Pope or any other human being.
1:12 For this reason I will not be negligent to remind you always of these things, though you know and are established in the present truth.
For this reason [therefore, wherefore]. Entrance into heaven is so very crucial. There is a possibility of forgetting or stumbling and missing out on eternal life with the Lord.
Chart REMINDERS (A)
- Passover (Ex 12:14).
- Manna (Ex 16:32).
- Stones in ephod (Ex 28:12).
- Tassels on corners of garments (Nu 15:39).
- Bronze censers hammered into plating for altar (Nu 16:39, 40).
Chart REMINDERS (B)
- Twelve Jordan stones (Jos 4:5-9).
- Large stone under oak (Jos 24:27).
- Anointing by woman at Bethany (Mt 26:12, 13).
- Lord's supper (Lu 22:19).
- Prayers (Ac 10:4).
I will not be negligent to remind you always [I intend always, shall always be ready, be ready always, will be careful, to put you always in mind, in remembrance].[ 56 ] "Always" indicates something fundamental, not something optional to be done only if one feels like it. There is a minor textual variation in the present verse but there is little difference in the meaning. The main difference in the text followed by the KJV and the NKJV and that followed by several other versions is that it puts the exhortation negatively: "not be negligent." Other versions render the text positively: "always be ready."
Peter makes no apology for reminding his readers of topics that they already knew. Christians never protest about hearing the old, old story of the cross. Everyone needs to be repeatedly reminded of sound doctrine. Gospel preachers do not apologize for reminding people of the truth.
Of these things [of these things]. "These things" are the fundamental teachings in Peter's letters. The epistles of Peter and the other NT writers need to be read and studied again and again. Such study inoculates against error. It is a safeguard (see Php 3:1). It is a mistake for members to complain that first principles are boring and unnecessary. To ignore or overlook any part of the counsel of God is to be disturbingly negligent. For teachers and preachers to fail to frequently repeat instructions on important, fundamental themes is not only unwise. It is disastrous!
Christians benefit by being often reminded of truths they have heard before. It does them good to hear again how they were cleansed from sin through the blood of Christ in baptism. They profit from lessons on hope, love, faith and daily living. They are edified by hearing how to worship acceptably, why certain things are not fitting and how the NT church was organized. When they understand what things may be changed, what must not be changed and why they become stronger in the faith.
Though you know [although, even as, knowing, ye know, them].[ 57 ] One thing Peter's readers knew was that they had been redeemed with precious blood (1Pe 1:18, 19). All teaching should be balanced. First principles are necessary but they alone, if preached over and over to the exclusion of more meaty themes, will retard the growth of a congregation.
Therefore, leaving the discussion of the elementary principles of Christ, let us go on to perfection, not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God (Heb 6:1).
Chart BEING ESTABLISHED
- Now to Him who is able to establish you according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ (Ro 16:25).
- Rooted and built up in Him and established in the faith, as you have been taught (Col 2:7).
- Comfort your hearts and establish you in every good word and work (2Th 2:17).
- Do not be carried about with various and strange doctrines. For it is good that the heart be established by grace, not with foods which have not profited those who have been occupied with them (Heb 13:9).
And are established [and, and be, established].[ 58 ] Learning is the "natural" process by which Christians grow in grace and knowledge (see 2Pe 3:16, 17). God establishes, strengthens and confirms Christians (see 1Pe 5:10). He does this like He calls them, by sound teaching (see Joh 6:44, 45).
Chart SCRIPTURES ALREADY WRITTEN
- All 39 OT books.
- Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts.
- Paul's 13 epistles except perhaps 2 Timothy (see 2Pe 3:16).
- 1, 2 Peter.
- 1, 2, 3 John, Jude, Revelation (unknown date).
- Probably Hebrews (consider Heb 9:9).
In the present truth [in the truth that you have, which is with you].[ 59 ] Peter is not urging the reinforcement or strengthening of secular education. Christians may study non-biblical information but they are not commanded to be established in it. Philosophical or scientific truth is not intended in the present context.
Eternal salvation comes about only from being established in God's word (compare Joh 8:31, 32). Christians need to be established in the sum-total of revealed truth. They also need to understand that there is past OT truth and present NT truth.
So now, brethren, I commend you to God and to the word of His grace, which is able to build you up and give you an inheritance among all those who are sanctified (Ac 20:32).
Therefore lay aside all filthiness and overflow of wickedness, and receive with meekness the implanted word, which is able to save your souls (Jas 1:21).
Like the Colossians and all other Christians, Peter's readers had heard the gospel preached (compare Col 1:5-7). What truth was present with them? It was gospel truth, the truth of Christ, what they had heard and read. It contained facts, commands and promises. Those who describe the epistles as love letters or just friendly guidelines need to reconsider. Peter is making a strong appeal for first-century Christians to make use of the inspired truth that was written and in existence at the time in order that they might be established (see chart SCRIPTURES ALREADY WRITTEN).
Inattentiveness and forgetfulness was and is a major problem. Preachers should never apologize for reaffirming first principles. In the past, after Peter's readers had heard the gospel, they had been established in it. Because some Christians are inclined to forget, they need to be reminded.
BY WAY OF REMINDER
1:13, 14 Yes, I think it is right, as long as I am in this tent, to stir you up by reminding you, 14 knowing that shortly I must put off my tent, just as our Lord Jesus Christ showed me.
Yes, I think it is right [I, and, but I, yea I, account it right, that it is right, meet].[ 60 ]
As long as I am in this tent [as long as I am in this tabernacle, this body].[ 61 ] The spirit is that part of a person that is in the tent or tabernacle. The human spirit dwells with the human body. Paul termed the human body a "tent" or "our earthly house" (see 2Co 5:1). During Peter's early life he may have seen little difference between body, soul and spirit but, as death approached, the "I" (the spiritual part) dominated. He did not quit serving God because he was old (see Joh 21:18, 19). Even though he knew he would soon die a martyr's death, he intended to keep on reminding, teaching and preaching as long as earthly life lasted.
To stir you up by reminding you [to arouse you by way of reminder, by putting you in remembrance].[ 62 ] For many people, being reminded is an absolute necessity. Accordingly, Peter mentions this again:
Beloved, I now write to you this second epistle (in both of which I stir up your pure minds by way of reminder) (2Pe 3:1).
Jude also expressed a need to remind his readers of topics they already knew:
But I want to remind you, though you once knew this, that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who did not believe (Jude 1:5).
PETER'S APPROACHING DEATH
[1:14] Knowing that shortly I must put off my tent [since I know that, I shall put off, the putting off, of my, this my, tabernacle, body, will be soon, is speedily to take place, cometh swiftly].[ 63 ] Peter was certainly past middle age when he wrote this letter. He was definitely aware of the brevity of his remaining time on earth. One reason he knew that his earthly life would not last much longer was because Christ Himself had told him about his death. He was a young man at that time, some think in his late twenties. He had already married (see Mt 8:14, 15; Mk 1:30; Lu 4:38, 39). If he served the Lord until he died about AD 67, he could have been in his sixties when he wrote.
Peter uses the same Greek word for "put off" as when he said baptism is "not the removal of the filth of the flesh" (1Pe 3:21). At death, he would "put off" or lay aside something. In no way does this minimize the doctrine of a bodily resurrection. It only emphasizes the spiritual aspect of death. At the end of his earthly life, Peter's spirit was going to "put off" his physical body.
Like a tent or tabernacle, the body is a dwelling place. It should not dominate the spirit (see 1Co 9:27). The term "tent" or "tabernacle" reminds one of Peter's words at the transfiguration.
Then it happened, as they were parting from Him, that Peter said to Jesus, "Master, it is good for us to be here; and let us make three tabernacles: one for You, one for Moses, and one for Elijah"-- not knowing what he said (Lu 9:33; Mt 17:4; Mk 9:5).
Some have suggested that the passage in Luke, together with his use of the word "departure" or "exodus" shows that Peter was indeed the writer of the present epistle. However, to some students this may not seem at all conclusive.
When Peter was writing, his death was imminent. It is generally believed he was martyred within about one year after he wrote his letters. If the tradition that he was crucified upside down is trustworthy, it is probable that his death from suffocation came swiftly.
Just as our Lord Jesus Christ showed me [as, even as, as also, our Lord Jesus Christ signified, has shown, hath shewed, has manifested to, unto, me].[ 64 ] Years before, Jesus told Peter something about how he would die:
"Most assuredly, I say to you, when you were younger, you girded yourself and walked where you wished; but when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will gird you and carry you where you do not wish." 19 This He spoke, signifying by what death he would glorify God. And when He had spoken this, He said to him, "Follow Me" (Joh 21:18, 19).
From the time Jesus spoke of Peter about glorifying God in his death, all throughout his ministry in the Lord's church the apostle knew that he would die for his Savior.[ 65 ] Yet he, like the other apostles, would be faithful until the end.[ 66 ] This should inspire a greater faith in us all.
A REMINDER AFTER PETER'S DEATH
1:15 Moreover I will be careful to ensure that you always have a reminder of these things after my decease.
Moreover I will be careful [yea, and, but, but also, I will see to it, endeavor, use, give, diligence, always be diligent]. Peter had urged his readers to apply "all diligence" (verse 5) and to "be even more diligent" (verse 10). He himself would do no less. While still alive, he would do his utmost to speak and write so that his teaching would be remembered.
To ensure that you always have a reminder of these things [that, that at every time, at any time, ye may be able to have, that you may have, should have also in your power, to recall, to call to mind, these things always, to, in, remembrance].[ 67 ] The information in Peter's two epistles would assist his readers in recalling truths he taught in person. His testimony would serve as a reminder after his death. Upon re-reading them, each student is able once again to consider his admonitions.
After my decease [that after my departure].[ 68 ] Notice in the footnote that Peter used EXODON, a word meaning "decease," "departure" or "exodus." That same word was used at the transfiguration in reference to Christ's EXODON departure that He was about to accomplish at Jerusalem (see Lu 9:31). To Peter, death did not end it all. It was only an exodus, a departure to another realm.
After a faithful Christian dies, friends who remain behind continue to speak of the good deeds (see Mt 26:13; Mk 14:9; Ac 9:39). In the case of Abel, "He being dead still speaks" (Heb 11:4). The high moral standards, examples of suffering, teaching, writing, electronic tapes, disks, CD's DVD's and records that remain may influence others for years to come.
Whether or not the good teaching and example of those who have died is effective is up to each survivor. Some may remember while others may choose to forget. A few may want to remember but have little of a tangible nature to remind them.[ 69 ]
EYE-WITNESSES OF HIS MAJESTY
1:16 For we did not follow cunningly devised fables when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of His majesty.
For we did not follow [for we have not followed, following].[ 70 ] In verses 12-15, Peter employed the personal pronoun "I" several times. In verse 16, he switched to "we" in order to refer to the apostles. The eyewitnesses on the mount of transfiguration were James, John and Peter himself (compare Mt 17:1; Mk 9:2; Lu 9:28). None of them were not gullible fools. It took a great deal of evidence to convince them of the deity of Christ. Even after He was raised from the dead, some were doubtful.
But while they still did not believe for joy, and marveled, He said to them, "Have you any food here?" (Lu 24:41; compare Mt 28:17).
Chart TALES CLEVERLY DEVISED
- Fables and endless genealogies, which cause disputes (1Ti 1:4).
- But reject profane and old wives' fables (1Ti 4:7).
- And they will turn their ears away from the truth, and be turned aside to fables (2Ti 4:4).
- Jewish fables and commandments of men who turn from the truth (Tit 1:14).
- By covetousness they will exploit you with deceptive words (2Pe 2:3).
Cunningly devised fables [cleverly imagined myths].[ 71 ] Religionists have used false words to entice followers (2Pe 2:3) but the apostles, having been present with Christ, knew beyond doubt the truth of what they were teaching. Inspired men preached the gospel with fiery conviction, performed confirming miracles and gave their lives for their faith in Christ. Because of their convincing testimony the early church grew rapidly.
Peter does not say whether the "fables" were Jewish stories or Gentile myths. Jews embellished their history with various tales. Heathens told stories about creation, the flood and various shenanigans in which their gods were involved. Gnostics had their own speculations about AEONS (emanations that rose from the eternal abyss named Mind, Wisdom, Power, Truth, etc.).[ 72 ] In our day, novel twists are placed on some of the older myths. The so-called "New Age" teaching is little more than old gnosticism dressed up in innovative rags and peddled to an unsuspecting public. Liberal teachings in the churches are not new either. Similar tactics were tried a hundred years ago. They failed then. Why should they succeed now?
When we made known to you the power [for we have not made known unto you the power]. During His earthly ministry, Jesus taught concerning His heavenly authority and power (see Mt 28:19). When Peter and others preached the gospel of Christ to the persons addressed they made known His coming and power (see Ac 2:5; 8-11; 1Pe 1:1). The apostles continued to uphold this important doctrine (see charts POWER OF CHRIST A and B).
Chart POWER OF CHRIST (A)
- All things have been delivered to Me by My Father (Mt 11:27).
- Hereafter you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power (Mt 26:64).
- All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth (Mt 28:18).
- For to this end Christ died and rose and lived again, that He might be Lord of both the dead and the living (Ro 14:9).
Chart POWER OF CHRIST (B)
- Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God (1Co 1:24).
- And He put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be head over all things to the church (Eph 1:22).
- Therefore God also has highly exalted Him (Php 2:9).
- The head of all principality and power (Col 2:10).
- Angels and authorities and powers having been made subject to Him (1Pe 3:22).
And coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.[ 73 ] The Greek word for "coming" [PAROUSIAN] may also be translated "presence." Jesus was present when at first He came to earth. He will be present when He comes again on the great resurrection day.
But were eyewitnesses [but we were, having been, eyewitnesses]. [ 74 ] The particular eye-witnesses alluded to in the present context were James, John and Peter himself.
Of His majesty.[ 75 ] Three apostles witnessed the majesty and splendor of Christ on the Mount of Transfiguration. His might was endorsed by God Himself when He said, "This is My beloved Son. Hear Him!" (Mk 9:7).
Although the other nine apostles were not on the mountain with them, at least eight of them effectively preached the gospel. When Matthias was selected to replace Judas, it was required that all apostles be eyewitnesses of Christ. On that occasion, Peter said:
Therefore, of these men who have accompanied us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, 22 beginning from the baptism of John to that day when He was taken up from us, one of these must become a witness with us of His resurrection (Ac 1:21, 22; see charts APOSTLES AS WITNESSES A and B; PETER AN EYE-WITNESS).
Chart APOSTLES AS WITNESSES (A)
- Just as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses (Lu 1:2).
- And you are witnesses of these things (Lu 24:48).
- Beginning from the baptism of John to that day when He was taken up from us, one of these must become a witness with us of His resurrection (Ac 1:22).
Chart APOSTLES AS WITNESSES (B)
- And we are His witnesses to these things, and so also is the Holy Spirit (Ac 5:32).
- And we are witnesses of all things which He did both in the land of the Jews and in Jerusalem (Ac 10:39).
- He was seen for many days by those who came up with Him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are His witnesses to the people (Ac 13:31).
HONOR AND GLORY FROM GOD THE FATHER
1:17 For He received from God the Father honor and glory when such a voice came to Him from the Excellent Glory: "This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."
For He received from God the Father honor and glory [for when he received from God the Father, honor and glory].[ 76 ] On the Mount of Transfiguration Jesus received splendid honor from God the Father when He spoke recognizing Him (see note below on The Excellent Glory). The honor given to Him on the Mount anticipated His resurrection and ascension.
Chart TRANSFIGURATION (A)
- Began when Jesus was praying (Lu 9:29).
- Face shone like the sun (Mt 17:2).
- Clothing exceeding white, radiant and gleaming [flashing like lightning] (Mk 9:3; Lu 9:29).
- Appearance of face became different (Lu 9:29).
Chart TRANSFIGURATION (B)
- Jesus, Moses and Elijah spoke of His departure He was about to accomplish at Jerusalem (Lu 9:31).
- A bright cloud formed and overshadowed them (Mt 17:5; Mk 9:7; Lu 9:34).
- Voice out of the cloud: "This is My beloved Son. Hear Him!" (Lu 9:35).
Chart PETER AN EYE-WITNESS
- Transfiguration (Mt 17:1-9; Mk 9:2-8; Lu 9:28-36; 2Pe 1:17).
- This Jesus God has raised up, of which we are all witnesses (Ac 2:32).
- Not to all the people, but to witnesses chosen before by God, even to us who ate and drank with Him after He arose from the dead (Ac 10:41).
- Fellow elder and a witness of the sufferings of Christ (1Pe 5:1).
But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that He, by the grace of God, might taste death for everyone (Heb 2:9; compare Mt 17:5; Mk 9:7; charts GOD'S WITNESS TO CHRIST A and B).
Chart GOD'S WITNESS TO CHRIST (A)
- And suddenly a voice came from heaven, saying, "This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased" (Mt 3:17; compare Mk 1:11).
- Behold, My Servant whom I have chosen, my Beloved in whom My soul is well pleased! (Mt 12:18; compare Isa 42:1).
- And suddenly a voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Hear Him!" (Mt 17:5; compare Mk 9:7; Lu 9:35).
Chart GOD'S WITNESS TO CHRIST (B)
- There is another who bears witness of Me, and I know that the witness which He witnesses of Me is true (Joh 5:32).
- And the Father Himself, who sent Me, has testified of Me (Joh 5:37).
- I am One who bears witness of Myself, and the Father who sent Me bears witness of Me (Joh 8:18).
- The witness of God is greater; for this is the witness of God which He has testified of His Son (1Jo 5:9).
When such a voice [such a, and the, voice].[ 77 ] On at least one other occasion, God spoke in support of His Son:
"Now My soul is troubled, and what shall I say? 'Father, save Me from this hour'? But for this purpose I came to this hour. 28 "Father, glorify Your name." Then a voice came from heaven, saying, "I have both glorified it and will glorify it again" (Joh 12:27, 28).
Came to Him [was borne, when there was borne, uttered, there came, to him, being a message such as this was brought, to him].[ 78 ] Peter does not mention the NEPHELEE cloud[ 79 ] at the Transfiguration. It may be without significance but it is interesting to note that at the ascension, the same word for "cloud" is used.
Now when He had spoken these things, while they watched, He was taken up, and a cloud received Him out of their sight (Ac 1:9; compare Re 1:7; 10:1; 11:12; 14:14-16).
From [by].[ 80 ] The voice of God the Father was made or borne out of heaven (verse 18). It was caused to come "from" or "by" the cloud (Mt 17:5).
The Excellent Glory [by the Majestic Glory].[ 81 ] The cloud that over-shadowed those on the Mount of Transfiguration is evidently what is intended by the phrase "the Excellent Glory." It is likened to the Shekinah,[ 82 ] a non-biblical word used to describe the glory of God that filled the OT temple.
This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased [This is my beloved Son, with whom I have found my delight]. Christ is the Beloved and well-pleasing Son of the Most High God. To be in Christ is to be "in the Beloved."
To the praise of the glory of His grace, by which He has made us accepted in the Beloved (Eph 1:6).
The church is "the kingdom of the Son of His love" (Col 1:13; compare verse 18). By His statement from heaven on the mount, the Father's acknowledgement glorified Christ.
So also Christ did not glorify Himself to become High Priest, but it was He who said to Him: "You are My Son, today I have begotten You" (Heb 5:5; compare Joh 7:39; 12:16, 23, 28, 29; 13:3; 16:14; 17:1, 5).
VOICE FROM HEAVEN
1:18 And we heard this voice which came from heaven when we were with Him on the holy mountain.
And we heard this voice [we, we ourselves, heard this message, and this voice we heard].[ 83 ] Peter and two other apostles not only saw the glorified Christ but they heard God's voice.
Which came from heaven [borne, uttered, that came out of, heaven].[ 84 ] The literal, audible voice "came" or "was borne" from heaven. Actual words were spoken that the apostles could understand.
When we were with Him on the holy mountain [being, for we were, with him in the holy mount].[ 85 ] It was an exceptional privilege to be with the Lord when He glowed with light and splendor on the holy mountain top.
Chart HOLY MOUNTAINS (A)
- Horeb, holy ground [geographically indistinguishable from Sinai]; (Ex 3:1, 2).
- The city of our God, in His holy mountain (Ps 48:1).
- A mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan; a mountain of many peaks . . . . as in Sinai, in the Holy Place (Ps 68:15, 17).
Chart HOLY MOUNTAINS (B)
- Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD (Isa 2:2, 3; compare Mic 4:1, 2).
- Jerusalem shall be called the City of Truth, the Mountain of the LORD of hosts, the Holy Mountain (Zec 8:3).
PROPHETIC WORD CONFIRMED
1:19-21 And so we have the prophetic word confirmed, which you do well to heed as a light that shines in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning tar rises in your hearts; 20 knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation, 21 for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.
And so we have the prophetic word [and we have, we have also, a word of prophecy].[ 86 ] The entire Bible is God's prophetic word. By the time Peter wrote, some nineteen NT books had been written. At least thirteen of them were Paul's epistles (see 2Pe 3:15, 16). In addition, Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter and possibly Jude had been written. Some argue that John's four books plus Revelation were written before AD 70. The dates of writing of these books are unknown to me at this time (see chart SCRIPTURES ALREADY WRITTEN at verse 12).
Confirmed [made surer, more, a more, sure, established].[ 87 ] Peter considered the events on the Mount of Transfiguration to be a strong confirmation of the inspired word of God. Along with James and John, he saw lightning-beams stream forth from Christ. He identified Moses (the lawgiver) and Elijah (a great prophet). He heard them talking of Christ's decease (exodus/departure).[ 88 ] He and the others saw a cloud cover them and heard the voice of God Himself declare:
This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Hear Him! (Mt 17:5).
The marvelous scene made an indelible impression upon the apostle Peter. He was thoroughly convinced of the truth of all of the OT prophecies of Christ. He was reassured. He was completely satisfied that his own confession was true. He was of the veracity of the NT Scriptures (see 2Pe 3:16).
Simon Peter answered and said, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God" (Mt 16:16).
After the Lord's resurrection, as Peter thought upon the transfiguration scene, he never again doubted (see charts GOD'S SURE WORD A and B).
Chart GOD'S SURE WORD (A)
- There has not failed one word of all His good promise, which He promised through His servant Moses (1Ki 8:56).
- Your testimonies are very sure (Ps 93:5).
- The works of His hands are verity and justice; all His precepts are sure (Ps 111:7).
Chart GOD'S SURE WORD (B)
- Forever, O LORD, your word is settled in heaven (Ps 119:89).
- For I am the LORD. I speak, and the word which I speak will come to pass; it will no more be postponed; for in your days, O rebellious house, I will say the word and perform it (Eze 12:25).
- And He has confirmed His words, which He spoke against us and against our judges who judged us, by bringing upon us a great disaster (Da 9:12).
Chart GOD'S SURE WORD (C)
- One jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled (Mt 5:18).
- Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will by no means pass away (Lu 21:33).
- Therefore it is of faith that it might be according to grace, so that the promise might be sure to all the seed (Ro 4:16).
- "But the word of the Lord endures forever." Now this is the word which by the gospel was preached to you (1Pe 1:25).
It is a good thing to turn one's attention toward and take heed to the prophetic word of God. To do so is to replace doubt with faith. Its light brings hope to discouraged souls in a darkened world.
Chart TAKE HEED (A)
- Take heed what you hear (Mk 4:24
- Therefore take heed how you hear (Lu 8:18
- Take heed that you not be deceived (Lu 21:8
- Take heed to the ministry which you have received in the Lord, that you may fulfill it (Col 4:17).
Chart TAKE HEED (B)
- Take heed to yourself and to the doctrine. Continue in them, for in doing this you will save both yourself and those who hear you (1Ti 4:16).
- Therefore we must give the more earnest heed to the things we have heard, lest we drift away (Heb 2:1).
- And so we have the prophetic word confirmed, which you do well to heed (2Pe 1:19).
Which you do well to heed [whereunto, to which, ye will do well, taking heed, that ye take heed, to observe, to pay attention to this].
Chart WORD AS A LIGHT
- The commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes (Ps 19:8).
- Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path (Ps 119:105; compare verse 130).
- For the commandment is a lamp, and the law a light (Pr 6:23).
- The prophetic word confirmed, which you do well to heed as a light that shines in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts (2Pe 1:19).
As a light that shines [as to, unto, a lamp shining, that shineth].[ 89 ] I imagine the apostle Peter as he wrote in unfavorable circumstances, possibly in prison. If that picture is correct, he would literally take heed to any available light. That light, from whatever source, was his "lamp." He tells his readers that they need to take heed, to pay attention to, the light of every word of inspired revelation. He makes special reference to the fact that OT prophecies had been correctly interpreted as being fulfilled in Christ. Those Scriptures provided a spiritual map, brought hope, an anchor of the soul and guidance toward heaven. The NT Scriptures make clear what was partially presented in the OT (see chart WORD AS A LIGHT).
Chart SPIRITUAL DARKNESS
- The way of the wicked is like darkness; they do not know what makes them stumble (Pr 4:19).
- But if your eye is bad, your whole body will be full of darkness (Mt 6:23).
- Men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil (Joh 3:19).
- If we say that we have fellowship with Him, and walk in darkness, we lie and do not practice the truth (1Jo 1:6).
In a dark place [in an obscure place].[ 90 ] The Word of God is like a light shining in the spiritual darkness of a gloomy world (see chart SPIRITUAL DARKNESS). The Greek for "dark place" suggests that it was dry and dirty. Peter (like Paul when writing 2 Timothy) may have been in a dismal, murky dungeon when he wrote. If so, his only night light may have been from a star or the moon shining down through a small hole in the ceiling. During the day, with no other openings, the shadowy light was much appreciated. A prisoner would make use of every photon of available light. Christians seek to make use of every available bit of spiritual knowledge (see charts SPIRITUAL DARKNESS; WORD AS A LIGHT).
Chart DARKNESS TO LIGHT (A)
- The people who walked in darkness have seen a great light; those who dwelt in the land of the shadow of death, upon them a light has shined (Isa 9:2).
- And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it (Joh 1:5).
- Let us cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light (Ro 13:12).
- For you were once darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light (Eph 5:8).
Chart DARKNESS TO LIGHT (B)
- Children of God without fault in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you shine as lights in the world (Php 2:15).
- You are all sons of light and sons of the day. We are not of the night nor of darkness (1Th 5:5).
- That you may proclaim the praises of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light (1Pe 2:9).
Until the day dawns [until the day dawn].[ 91 ] First century Christians had the prophetic word confirmed. They would soon have the complete NT revelation. In a pagan society, Christians today are surrounded by spiritual darkness. To the immature, the written word may seem like a tiny light. However, as they continue to study and conform to it, a light bright and radiant begins to shine in their hearts (see charts DARKNESS TO LIGHT A and B).
And the morning star rises in your hearts [and the day star arise, and bring light to shine, in your hearts].[ 92 ] The Greek PHOOSPHOROS phosphorus, morning star was a name given to the planet Venus. It is the third brightest object in the heavens. "Phosphorus" It is always seen in or near the ecliptic, the part of the heavens where the sun seems to travel across the sky. Because it is nearer to the sun than earth, at times it appears as Hesperus, the evening star. As the "morning star" it rises in the east and heralds the sunrise. Ancient shepherds without wrist-watches could look for Venus (Phosphorus or the morning star) and be able to predict within minutes the time of sunrise.
The day-star arising in the heart is another way of saying that one has received a strong assurance of the coming light of the revelation of the Son of God. Those who have this confidence have "caught on" spiritually. Others recognize in them devotion, commitment and dedication. They are enthusiastic workers for the Lord. A similar thought was expressed by John.
Again, a new commandment I write to you, which thing is true in Him and in you, because the darkness is passing away, and the true light is already shining (1Jo 2:8).
Christians today who diligently study the word of God find that their faith grows stronger and stronger. Consistent obedience and regular worship moves them more and more into the Light, and the Light more and more into them.
[1:20] Knowing this first [first of all you must understand this].[ 93 ] Peter calls upon his readers to know an important fact about prophecies of Scripture. The point he makes is "first." It is basic to understanding Scripture.
That no prophecy of Scripture [ that, the scope of, no prophecy of the scripture].[ 94 ] In the present context, all of the inspired Scriptures in both testaments are prophecies of Scripture. Peter's words therefore have a broad general application.
Is [is had, can be].[ 95 ] The word is [GINETAI] speaks of the origin or revelation of the prophecy, not its exegesis or explanation.
NOT OF PRIVATE UNFOLDING
Of any private [a matter of one's own, by one's own power, from its own particular, of private].[ 96 ] The process of prophesying did not involve the active creation and composition of Scriptures by human agents. The prophets had no personal occupation in, or control over, the content of what was revealed to them from God.
Interpretation.[ 97 ] In the present context, "interpretation" is more of an unloosing or unfolding than it is a hermeneutic in the sense that it the prophets themselves did not have a right to put a "spin" upon what God gave them.
The private interpretation refers, not to those who read the prophecy, but to those who delivered it--the prophets themselves.[ 98 ]
Non-Christian Greek "prophets" acted as interpreters for the muses[ 99 ] and the oracles.[ 100 ] Unlike those Greek charlatans, true prophets of God uttered actual words that God gave them. Although, somehow, the Holy Spirit used the existing vocabularies and styles of the prophets, we may be certain that the inspired men did not overlay God's thoughts with their own interpretative words.
We believe that God put His words in Moses' mouth. He, in turn, spoke God's message to the people. When He foretold through Moses about "the Prophet"[ 101 ] to come, He was speaking about Christ who would be the Prophet like Moses.
I will raise up for them a Prophet like you from among their brethren, and will put My words in His mouth, and He shall speak to them all that I command Him (De 18:18).
Christ and all true prophets were to deliver only God's words to the people. Even one wrong word would bring punishment by death. This is clear from what God said in an ensuing verse in Deuteronomy:
But the prophet who presumes to speak a word in My name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or who speaks in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die (De 18:20).
[1:21] For prophecy never came [because, for, no prophecy ever came, was not ever uttered, for the prophecy came not, in old time].[ 102 ] Peter had just written about the manner in which the prophecies were received by the prophets themselves. "For" introduces a reason for supporting that idea and gives more information about it. Humans have no right to play fast and loose, meddle with or change God's word.
For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book; 19 and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book (Re 22:18, 19; compare De 4:2; Pr 30:6).
By the will of man [by the impulse of man].[ 103 ] It was God's choice, not man's, to give prophecies to people on earth. Although a prophet might control the time when he spoke, he could not, by any act of human will, get a special message for the occasion (see Nu 22:33, 38; 23:12, 25; 24:12, 13; 1Co 14:28-31). The case of Balaam illustrates this (see Nu 22:333, 38; 23:12, 25; 24:12, 13). Neither could someone "doctor" God's revelation to suit himself or others. The Bible is not a product of the mind of man. Therefore the Bible must not be treated carelessly as if it were a mere human document.
But holy men of God spoke [but men, by holy men, spake, who spoke, from God].[ 104 ] Although the Holy Scriptures did not come by human will, about forty men had a part in writing them. The Greek ANTHROOPOI men sometimes includes both males and females. Although the words of a few prophetesses are recorded in the Bible, no book in the sacred record is known to have been written by a woman.[ 105 ]
- Huldah the prophetess (2Ki 22:14; compare 2Ch 34:22-28).
- The prophetess Noadiah (Ne 6:14).
- Then I went to the prophetess, and she conceived and bore a son (Isa 8:3).
- Anna, a prophetess (Lu 2:36).
- Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy (Ac 2:17; compare Ac 21:9).
As they were moved by the Holy Spirit [moved by, being moved by, under the power of, the Holy Ghost].[ 106 ] Prophets were "moved" or "borne along" by the Holy Spirit who provided words to them. What they wrote was not their own message. Since Luke used medical terms more than others, it has been proposed that for the most part the Holy Spirit chose words from vocabularies of individual prophets. Differences in style suggest that, while guaranteeing the accuracy of the words, the writers of Scripture were accommodated to some degree by their own individual manner and style of writing (see note on 1Co 2:13). Certain passages were given by direct dictation (see 1Ti 4:1).
The inspired writers were passive. They had only a minor part in the writing, such as vocabulary and style. It may truthfully be said that they spoke from God. Men who were led by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.
[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]SUMEOON PETROS, Symeon Peter (Marshall 922; Lenski 247); the best orthography is Symeon, which is the form of his name in Acts 15:14 (Vincent 1.675); Simon Peter (Williams).
[ 3 ]SUMEOON may be transliterated Symeon or Simeon.
[ 4 ]DOULOS KAI APOSTOLOS, a slave and an apostle (Marshall 922); DOULOS [is] an adjective signifying "in bondage" . . . used as a noun, and as the most common and general word for "servant," frequently indicating subjection without the idea of bondage . . . of God (Vine 1019); a slave and apostle (Williams); slave and apostle (Lenski 247).
[ 5 ]'IEESOU CHRISTOU, of Jesus Christ (Marshall 922; Williams; Lenski 247).
[ 6 ]TOIS LACHOUSIN, to the [ones] having obtained (Marshall 922); LACHOUSIN is the second aorist active participle, dative plural masculine of LANCHANOO (Han 423); literally, obtained by lot (Vincent 1.675); to those who have obtained (Williams); to those having obtained (Lenski 247).
[ 7 ]ISOTIMON PISTIN, equally precious faith (Marshall 922); like-precious . . . not the same in measure to all, but having an equal value and honor to those who receive it, as admitting them to the same Christian privileges (Vincent 1.676); the same precious faith (Williams); faith of equal value (Lenski 247).
[ 8 ]See Marshall 922.
[ 9 ]HEEMIN with us (Marshall 922); that we have (Williams); with ours (Lenski 247).
[ 10 ]EN DIKAIOSUNEE TOU THEOU HEEMOON KAI SOOTEEROS 'IEESOU CHRISTOU, in [the] righteousness of the God of us and Savior Jesus Christ (Marshall 922); through the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ (Williams); in connection with righteousness from our God and Savior Jesus Christ (Lenski 247).
[ 11 ]CHARIS HUMIN KAI EIREENEE PLEETHUNTHEIEE, grace to you and peace may it be multiplied (Marshall 922); PLEETHUNTHEIEE is third person singular, first aorist passive optative of PLEETHUNOO (Han 423); spiritual blessing and peace to you in increasing abundance (Williams); may grace to you and peace be multiplied (Lenski 247).
[ 12 ]EN EPIGNOOSEI, by a full knowledge (Marshall 922); the compound expressing full knowledge, and so common in Paul's writings (Vincent 1.676); through a full knowledge (Williams); in connection with knowledge (Lenski 247).
[ 13 ]TOU THEOU KAI 'IEESOU TOU KURIOU HEEMOON, of God and of Jesus the Lord of us (Marshall 922); from our God and Lord Jesus! (Lenski 247); of God and of Jesus our Lord (Williams).
[ 14 ]HOOS TEES THEIAS DUNAMEOOS AUTOU, as the divine power of him=his divine power (Marshall 922); because His divine power (Williams); as his divine power (Lenski 256).
[ 15 ]DEDOOREMEENEES, having given; has given us (Marshall 922, 923); the perfect passive participle, genitive singular feminine of DOOREOMAI (Han 423); stronger than the simple DIDOOMI to give, meaning to grant or bestow as a gift (Vincent 1.676); presented, bestowed . . . hath granted, He hath granted (Vine 502); has granted to us (Lenski 256); has given us (Williams).
[ 16 ]TA PANTA TA PROS ZOONEE, all things [belonging] to life (Marshall 922, 923); everything that is needful for life (Williams); all things to us regarding life (Lenski 256).
[ 17 ]KAI EUSEBEIAN, and piety (Marshall 923); [EU well, SEBOMAI to worship], the radical idea is worship rightly directed. Worship, however, is to be understood in its etymological sense, worth-ship, or reverence paid to worth, whether in God or man (Vincent 1.676); and piety (Williams); and godliness (Lenski 256).
[ 18 ]DIA TEES EPIGNOOSEOOS, through the full knowledge of the [one] (Marshall 923); through our full knowledge (Williams); by means of the knowledge (Lenski 256).
[ 19 ]TOU KALESANTOS HEEMAS, of the [one] having called us (Marshall 923); KALESANTOS the first aorist active participle, genitive singular masculine of KALEOO (Han 423); of Him who has called us to Him (Williams); from the one who called us (Lenski 256).
[ 20 ]IDIA DOXEE, to [his] own glory (Marshall 923); literally and properly, by his own glory . . . though some read DIA DOXEES through glory' IDIA, not necessarily with an emphatic force, since the adjective is sometimes used merely as a possessive pronoun' literally and properly, by his own glory . . . though some read DIA DOXES through glory (Vincent 1.677); with his own glory (Lenski 256); through His glory (Williams).
[ 21 ]KAI ARETEE, and virtue (Marshall 923); the original classical sense of the word had no special moral import, but denoted excellence of any kind--bravery, rank, nobility; also, excellence of land, animals, things, classes of persons (Vincent 1.677); in 2 Peter 1:3, "[by His own glory and] virtue," ASV [instrumental dative], that is, the manifestation of His divine power; this significance is frequently illustrated in the papyri and was evidently common in current Greek speech (Vine 1201, 1202); and excellence (Williams); and praise (Lenski 256).
[ 22 ]DI' HOON, through which things (Marshall 923); literally, through which, that is, his glory and virtue (Vincent 1.677, 678); it is through these (Williams); by means of which [glory and praise] (Lenski 256).
[ 23 ]HEEMIN DEDOOREETAI, to us he has given (Marshall 923); DEDOOREETAI is third person singular, perfect passive indicative of DOOREOMAI (Han 423); middle voice; not passive, as KJV . . . he hath granted (Vincent 1.678); that he has given us (Williams); he has granted (Lenski 256).
[ 24 ]KAI MEGISTA, and very great (Marshall 923); his exceeding great, etc., by way of rendering the definite article, TA (Vincent 1.678); denotes splendor, magnificence [from MEGALEIOS magnificent, "mighty," Acts 2:11, MEGAS great] (Vine 700); and glorious [literally, very great] (Williams); and greatest (Lenski 256).
[ 25 ]TA TIMIA EPANGELMATA, the precious promises (Marshall 923); in classical Greek the distinction is made between EPANGELMATA promises voluntarily or spontaneously made, and HUPOSCHESEIS, promises made in response to a petition (Vincent 1.678); his precious promises (Williams); precious promises (Lenski 256).
[ 26 ]GENEESTHE THEIAS KOINOONOI PUSEOOS, ye might become of a divine sharers nature (Marshall 923); GENEESTHE is second person plural, second aorist middle subjunctive of GINOMAI (Han 423); may become, conveying the idea of a growth (Vincent 1.678); [THEIAS is from THEOS God], 2 Peter 1:3, and of His nature, verse 4, in each place as that which proceeds from Himself (Vine 320); you may come to share in the divine nature (Williams); we may get to fellowship divine nature (Lenski 256).
[ 27 ]APOPHUGONTES TEES EN TOO KOSMOO EN EPITHUMIA PHTHORAS, escaping from the in the world by lust corruption (Marshall 923); APOPHUGONTES is the second aorist active participle, nominative plural masculine of APOPHEUGOO (Han 423); connected with PHTHEIROO to destroy by means of corrupting, and so bringing into a worse state], of the effect of lusts (Vine 235); moral decay (Thayer 653); ASV renders by lust, as the instrument of the corruption. Others, in lust, as the sphere of the corruption, or as that in which it is grounded (Vincent 1.678); after you have escaped from the corruption that is in the world (Williams); by having escaped from the corruption [in connection with lust] in the world (Lenski 256).
[ 28 ]KAI AUTO TOUTO, also for this very thing [reason] (Marshall 923); for this very cause; literally, this very thing (Vincent 1.678); now for this very reason (Williams); even with respect to this very fact (Lenski 263).
[ 29 ]DE SPOUDEEN PASAN PAREISENENKANTES, but diligence all bringing in (Marshall 923); PAREISENENKANTES is the first aorist active participle, nominative plural masculine of PAREISPHEROO (Han 423); literally, to bring in by the side of: adding your diligence to the divine promises (Vincent 1.679); you must do your level best [Greek, furnish all earnestness] (Williams); having brought along in all diligence (Lenski 263).
[ 30 ]EPICHOREEGEESATE, supply (Marshall 923); second person plural, first aorist active imperative of EPICHOREEGEOO (Han 423); the verb rendered add is derived from CHOROS, a chorus, such as was employed in the representation of the Greek tragedies. The verb originally means to bear the expense of a chorus, which was done by a person selected by the state, who was obliged to defray all the expenses of training and maintenance. In the NT the word has lost this technical sense, and is used in the general sense of supplying or providing (Vincent 1.679); to supplement (Williams); furnish (Lenski 263).
[ 31 ]EN TEE PISTEI HUMOON TEEN ARETEEN, in the faith of you virtue (Marshall 923); moral excellence [from ARETEE any moral excellence, as modesty, purity, courage, power, strength] (Littrell); not in the sense of moral excellence, but of the energy which Christians are to exhibit, as God exerts his energy upon them. As God calls us by his own virtue (verse 3), so Christians are to exhibit virtue or energy in the exercise of their faith, translating it into vigorous action (Vincent 1.679); of any particular moral excellence . . . enjoined as an essential quality in the exercise of faith (Vine 1202); in connection with your faith the [corresponding] praise (Lenski 263); your faith with moral character [literally, virtue, in a moral sense] (Williams).
[ 32 ]EN DE TEE ARETEE TEEN GNOOSIN, and in virtue knowledge (Marshall 923); moral character with knowledge (Williams); and in connection with the praise the [corresponding] knowledge (Lenski 263).
[ 33 ]EN DE TEE KNOOSEI TEEN ENKRATEIAN, and in knowledge self-control (Marshall 923); self-control; holding the passions and desires in hand (Vincent 1.169); and in connection with the knowledge the [corresponding] self-control (Lenski 263); knowledge with self-control (Williams).
[ 34 ]EN DE TEE ENKRATEIA TEEN HUPOMONEEN, and in self-control endurance (Marshall 923); literally, remaining behind or staying, from MENOO to wait. Not merely endurance of the inevitable, for Christ could have relieved himself of his sufferings [Heb 12:2, 3; compare Mt 26:53]; but the heroic, brave patience with which a Christian not only bears but contends (Vincent 1.679); self-control with patient endurance (Williams); and in connection with the self-control the [corresponding] perseverance (Lenski 263).
[ 35 ]EN DE TEE HUPOMONEE TEEN EUSEBEIAN, and endurance piety (Marshall 923); this quality is never ascribed to God (Vincent 1.680); patient endurance with piety (Williams); and in connection with the perseverance the [corresponding] godliness (Lenski 262).
[ 36 ]EN DE TEE EUSEBEIA TEEN PHILADELPHIAN, and in piety brotherly friendship (Marshall 923); love of the brethren . . . Christian fellow-believers as naturally and properly holding the first place in our affections (Vincent 1.680); [PHILEOO to love, ADELPHOS a brother or near kinsman], love of the brethren (Vine 147); and in connection with the godliness the [corresponding] fraternal friendliness (Lenski 263, 264); piety with brotherly affection (Williams).
[ 37 ]EN DE TEE PHILADELPHIA TEEN AGAPEEN, and in brotherly friendship love (Marshall 923); the broader affection which should characterize Christians, and which Paul lauds in 1 Corinthians 13, the love of men as men. Charity has acquired two peculiar meanings, both of which are indeed included or implied in love, but neither of which expresses more than a single phase of love--tolerance and beneficence (Vincent 1.680); AGAPEE AND AGAPAOO are used in the NT . . . to convey [God's] will to His children concerning their attitude one toward another, John 13:34, and toward all men (Vine 693); and in connection with the fraternal friendliness the [corresponding] love (Lenski 264); brotherly affection with universal [implied in this larger word for love] love (Williams).
[ 38 ]TAUTA GAR HUMIN HUPARCHONTA KAI PLEONAZONTA, these things For in you being and abounding (Marshall 923); HUPARCHONTA is the present active participle, accusative singular masculine of HUPARCHOO; PLEONAZONTA is the present active participle, active singular masculine or nominative plural neuter of PLEONAZOO (Han 423); are yours, following the sense of possession which legitimately belongs to the verb (Vincent 1.681); for if you have these qualities and they continue to increase in you (Williams); for these things, belonging to you and abounding (Lenski 270).
[ 39 ]OUK ARGOUS KATHISTEESIN, not barren makes [you] (Marshall 923); KATHISTEESIN is third person singular, present active indicative of KATHISTEEMI [from A not, ERGOU work]; hence, more correctly, idle (Vincent 1.681); set [you] down as not barren (Lenski 270); they will make you neither idle (Williams).
[ 40 ]OUDE AKARPOUS nor unfruitful (Marshall 923); [A negative, KARPOS fruit], used figuratively of the effects of failing to supply in one's faith the qualities of virtue, knowledge, temperance, patience, godliness, love of the brethren and love (Vine 464); nor unproductive (Williams); or unfruitful (Lenski 270).
[ 41 ]EIS TEEN TOU KURIOU HEEMOON 'IEESOU CHRISTOU EPIGNOOSIN, in the of the Lord of us Jesus Christ full knowledge (Marshall 923); denotes to observe, fully perceive, notice attentively, discern, recognize [EPI upon GINOOSKOO to be taking in knowledge or to understand completely] (Vine 629); with regard to the knowledge from your Lord Jesus Christ (Lenski 270, 271); in attaining a full knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ (Williams).
[ 42 ]Quoted by Vine 619. "Abstract," as used here, means "theoretical."
[ 43 ]HOO GAR MEE PARESTIN TAUTA, for [he] in whom not is [are] present these things (Marshall 923); PARESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of PAREIMI (Han 423); literally, to whom these things are not present (Vincent 1.681); for whoever lacks these qualities (Williams); for he to whom are not present these things [the same TAUTA as in verse 8] is blind (Lenski 272).
[ 44 ]TUPHLOS ESTIN MUOOPAZOON, blind is being short-sighted (Marshall 923); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI; MUOOPAZOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of MUOOPAZOO (Han 423); illustrating Peter's emphasis on sight as a medium of instruction (Vincent 1.681; [from a root TUPH- to burn, smoke], blind, used metaphorically (Vine 126); is blind [he] being myopic (Lenski 272); is blind--or short-sighted (Williams).
[ 45 ]LEETHEEN LABOON TOU KATHARISMOU, forgetfulness taking=being forgetful of the cleansing (Marshall 923); LABOON is the second aorist active participle, nominative singular masculine of LAMBANOO (Han 423); literally, having taken forgetfulness (Vincent 1.682); and forgetful of the cleansing (Williams); having received forgetfulness of the cleansing (Lenski 272).
[ 46 ]TOON PALAI AUTOU HAMARTIOON, of the in time past of him sins (Marshall 923); from his old sins (Lenski 272); from his former sins (Williams).
[ 47 ]DIO ADELPHOI, wherefore brothers (Marshall 923); the only instance of address in Peter, who commonly uses beloved (Vincent 1.682); therefore, brothers (Williams); wherefore, brethren (Lenski 273).
[ 48 ]MALLON SPOUDASATE, rather be ye diligent firm of you (Marshall 923, 924); SPOUDASATE is second person plural, first aorist active imperative of SPOUDAZOO (Han 423); the adverb [rather] belongs rather with the verb give diligence. Render give the more diligence (Vincent 1.682); SPOUDASATE has two meanings  earnestness, zeal or  sometimes the haste accompanying the work; of making our calling and election sure (Vine 304); the more be diligent (Lenski 273); be all the more earnest (Williams).
[ 49 ]BEBAIAN HUMOON TEEN KLEESIN KAI EKLOGEEN POIEISTHAI, firm of you the calling and choice to make (Marshall 924); POIEISTHAI is the present middle infinitive of POIEOO (Han 423); firm, steadfast, used of the calling and election of believers to be made "sure"; believers are to give "the more diligence to make their calling and election sure," by the exercise of the qualities and graces which make them fruitful in the knowledge of God (Vine 352; 1109); in making sure for yourselves your calling and election (Lenski 273); to make certain to yourselves [pronoun translates middle voice] God's call and choice of you (Williams).
[ 50 ]Kelcy 125.
[ 51 ]TAUTA GAR POIOUNTES, for these things doing (Marshall); POIOUNTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of POIEOO (Han 423); for by doing these things (Lenski 273); for if you cultivate [literally, by doing, or putting in practice] these qualities (Williams).
[ 52 ]OU MEE PTAISEETE POTE, by no means ye will fall ever (Marshall 924); PTAISEETE is second person plural, first aorist active subjunctive of PTAIOO (Han 423); literally, stumble (Vincent 1.682); you will never slip (Williams); you will not stumble ever (Lenski 273).
[ 53 ]HOUTOOS GAR HEE EISODOS, for so the entrance (Marshall 924); for in this way the entrance (Lenski 273); for it is in this way that a triumphant admittance (Williams).
[ 54 ]PLOUSIOOS EPICHOREEGEETHEESETAI HUMIN HEE, richly will be supplied to you (Marshall 924); EPICHOREEGEETHEESETAI is third person singular, future passive indicative of EPICHOREEGEOO (Han 423); shall be richly supplied. We are to furnish in our faith: the reward shall be furnished unto us. Richly, indicating the fullness of future blessedness (Vincent 1.682); to supply fully, abundantly [a strengthened form of CHOREEGEOO to supply, to minister] (Vine 22, 1107; generously granted (Williams); furnished for you richly (Lenski 273).
[ 55 ]EIS TEEN AIOONION BASILEIAN TOU KURIO HEEMOON KAI SOOTEEROS 'IEESOU CHRISTOU, into the eternal kingdom of the Lord of us and Savior Jesus Christ (Marshall 924); eternal is better than everlasting, since the word includes more than duration of time (Vincent 1.682); into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (Williams; Lenski 273).
[ 56 ]MELLEESOO AEI HUMAS HUPOMIMNEESKEIN, I will indeed intend always you to remind (Marshall 924); MELLEESOO is first person singular, future active indicative of MELLOO; HUPOMIMNEESKEIN is the present active infinitive of HUPOMIMNEESKOO (Han 423); shall be ready always to remind you (Lenski 280); I will always remind you (Williams); the Received Text has OUK AMELEESOO that is followed and correctly rendered by the KJV and NKJV translators.
[ 57 ]KAIPER EIDOTAS, though knowing (Marshall 924); EIDOTAS is the perfect active participle, accusative plural masculine of OIDA (Han 423); literally, knowing (Vincent 1.683); although knowing them (Lenski 280); although you know them (Williams).
[ 58 ]KAI ESTEERIGMENOUS, and having been confirmed (Marshall 924); ESTEERIGMENOUS is the perfect passive participle, accusative plural masculine of STEERIZOO (Han 423); the means used to effect the confirmation is the ministry of the Word of God, 2 Peter 1:12, "are established [in the truth which is with you] (Vine 371); and having been strengthened (Lenski 280); and are firmly grounded (Williams).
[ 59 ]EN TEE PAROUSEE ALEETHEIA, in the present truth (Marshall 924); that is, the truth which is present with you through the instruction of your teachers; not the truth at present under consideration (Vincent 1.683); of the truth "[which] is with [you]" [not as KJV "the present truth," as if of special doctrines applicable to a particular time (Vine 878); ready, in store, at command . . . the truth which ye now hold so that there is no need of words to call it to your remembrance (Thayer 487); the truth that you have (Arndt 624); with the truth present [with you] (Lenski 280); that you already have (Williams).
[ 60 ]DIKAION DE HEEGOUMAI, and right I deem [it] (Marshall 924); HEEGOUMAI is first person singular, present middle indicative of HEEGEOMAI (Han 423); yet I think it right (Williams); moreover, I consider it right (Lenski 281).
[ 61 ]EPH' HOSON EIMI EN TOUTOO TOO SKEENOOMATI, so long as I am in this tabernacle (Marshall 924); a figurative expression for the body (Vincent 1.683); as long as I live in this bodily tent [This figure refers to the earthly body as not being the soul's permanent home] (Williams); as long as I am in this tabernacle (Lenski 281).
[ 62 ]DIEGEIREIN HUMAS EN HUPOMNEESEI, to rouse you by a reminder (Marshall 924); DIEGEIREIN is the present active infinitive of DIEGEIROO (Han 423); literally, to stir you up in reminding (Vincent 1.683); to arouse you by a reminder (Williams); to keep stirring you in a reminder (Lenski 281).
[ 63 ]EIDOOS HOTI TACHINEE ESTIN HEE APOTHESIS TOU SKEENOOMATOS MOU, knowing that soon is the putting off of the tabernacle of me (Marshall 924); EIDOOS is the perfect active participle, nominative singular masculine of OIDA (Han 423); of "the putting off" of the body [as a tabernacle] at death (Vine 910); a putting off or away (Thayer 61); removal, getting rid of . . . of my tent, euphemism for death (Arndt 91); knowing that the putting away of my tabernacle (Lenski 281); because I know that the removal of my bodily tent (Williams).
[ 64 ]KATHOOS KAI HO KURIOS HEEMOON 'IEESOUS CHRISTOS EDEELOOSEN MOI, as indeed the Lord of us Jesus Christ made clear to me (Marshall 924); EDEELOOSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of DEELOOO (Han 423); the tense is the aorist, pointing back to a definite act at a past time. Hence, showed me (Vincent 1.684); aorist tense, and indicates a definite time in the apostle's mind when this information was revealed to him (Woods 156); as also our Lord Jesus Christ made plain to me (Lenski 281); as our Lord Jesus Christ has shown me (Williams).
[ 65 ]It is not impossible to think that Christ gave Peter additional information about his approaching death. Such a revelation could have been made at any time since he was an inspired apostle who was frequently given information from the Divine Source.
[ 66 ]Judas Iscariot was the only apostle who defected.
[ 67 ]HEKASTOTE EXEIN HUMAS MNEEMEEN POIEISTHAI, always to have you memory to cause (Marshall 924); EXEIN is the present active infinitive of ECHOO; POIEISTHAI IS THE PRESENT MIDDLE INFINITIVE OF poieoo (Han 423); [from HEAKSTOS each], is used in 2 Peter 1:15, "at every time," "always" (Vine 43, 1151); EXEIN HUMAS, literally, that you may have it (Vincent 1.684); so that every time you have occasion, you may call these things to mind (Williams); on any occasion to effect for yourselves the recollection of these things (Lenski 283).
[ 68 ]META TEEN EMEEN EXODON, after my exodus (Marshall 924); after I have gone away (Williams); after my own decease (Lenski 283); euphemistically departure, death (Arndt 276).
[ 69 ]The writer's own grandfather Hudson was a faithful Christian and song leader in the Gatewood and/or Ponder churches of Christ in Ripley County, Missouri. His influence lives on even though I do not have a good photograph of him. I have little information about my great-grandparents but it would be nice to know whether they too were Christians.
[ 70 ]OU GAR EXAKOLOUTHEESANTES, for not following (Marshall 924); EXAKOLOUTHEESANTES is the first aorist active participle, nominative plural masculine of EXAKOLOUTHEOO (Han 423); a strong compound . . . the EX gives the force of following out; in the pursuance of; closely (Vincent 1.685); for not following out (Lenski 284); for it was not that we followed (Williams).
[ 71 ]SESOPHISMENOIS MUTHOIS, having been cleverly devised fables (Marshall 924); SESOPHISMENOIS is the perfect passive participle, dative plural masculine of SOPHIZOO (Han 423); here in a bad sense, artfully framed by human cleverness [SOPHIA] MUTHOIS is transcribed in the word myth (Vincent 1.685); mere stories of fancy (Williams); sophisticated myths (Lenski 284).
[ 72 ]Vincent 1.685.
[ 73 ]TEEN TOU KURIOU HEEMOON 'IEESOU CHRISTOU KAI PAROUSIAN, the of the Lord of us Jesus Christ (Marshall 924); ability, might (Vine 868); or presence. Another word APOKALUPSIS revelation is used in 1 Peter 1:7, 13; 4:13 to describe the appearing of Christ (Vincent 1.685); the power and Parousia of our Lord Jesus Christ (Lenski 284); the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ (Williams).
[ 74 ]ALL' EPOPTAI GENEETHENTES, but eyewitnesses having become (Marshall 924); primarily overseers [EPI over], then, spectators, eye-witnesses of anything, used in 2 Peter 1:16 of those who were present at the Transfiguration of Christ. Among the Greeks the word was used of those who had attained to the third grade, the highest, of the Eleusinian mysteries, a religious cult at Eleusis, with its worship, rites, festival and pilgrimages; this brotherhood was open to all Greeks (Vine 395); but we had been eyewitnesses (Williams); but as became eyewitnesses (Lenski 284).
[ 75 ]TEES EKEINOU MEGALEIOTEETOS, of the of that one majesty (Marshall 924); used of the mighty power, majesty, of God [Lu 9:43] and of the magnificence of Diana [Ac 19:27] (Vincent 1.685); denotes splendor, magnificence [from MEGALEIOS magnificent, "mighty," Acts 2:11, MEGAS great] (Vine 700); of His majesty (Lenski 284; Williams).
[ 76 ]LABOON GAR PARA THEOU PATROS, for receiving from God [the] Father (Marshall 924); LABOON is the second active participle, nominative singular masculine of LAMBANOO (Han 423); [DOXAN, from DOKEOO to seem], primarily signifies an opinion, estimate, and hence, the honor result in from a good opinion. It is used of the nature and acts of God in self-manifestation, that is, what He essentially is and does, as exhibited in whatever way He reveals Himself in these respects, and particularly in the Person of Christ, in whom His glory has ever shone forth and ever will do, John 17:5, 24; Heb 1:3; it was exhibited . . . on the Mount of Transfiguration (Vine 492); when He received from God the Father (Williams); for instance, when receiving from God [the] Father (Lenski 284).
[ 77 ]PHOONEES TOIASDE, a voice such (Marshall 924); note the same word in the account of Pentecost [Ac 2:6], where the KJV obscures the meaning by rendering, when this was noised abroad; whereas it should be when this voice was heard (Vincent 1.686); a voice like this (Williams); and this voice (Lenski 284).
[ 78 ]ENECHTHEISEES AUTOO, being borne to him (Marshall 924); ENECHTHEISEES is the first aorist passive participle, genitive singular feminine of PHEROO (Han 423); literally, having been borne (Vincent 1.686); was brought, came (Thayer 650); of a divine proclamation, whether direct or indirect (Arndt 855).
[ 79 ]Definitely-shaped cloud (see Vine 192).
[ 80 ]HUPO from (Marshall 924); literally, by (Vincent 1.687); from (Williams); by (Lenski 284).
[ 81 ]TEES MEGALOPREPOUS DOXEES, the magnificent glory (Marshall 924, 925); or sublime . . . the phrase excellent glory refers to the bright cloud which overshadowed the company on the transfiguration mount, like the shekinah above the mercy-seat (Vincent 1.686); signifies magnificent, majestic; that which is becoming to a great man [from MEGAS great, PREPOO to be fitting or becoming], in 2 Peter 1:17, "excellent" (Vine 386); the majestic glory (Williams); the majestically befitting glory (Lenski 284).
[ 82 ][From the Hebrew SHEKINAH dwelling of God], often used to describe the visible presence or glory of God (see Ex 13:21; 14:19, 20; 24:15-18; 40:34-38; 2Ch 7:1; Isa 60:2; Ro 9:4).
[ 83 ]KAI TAUTEEN TEEN PHOONEEN HEEMEIS EEKOUSAMEN, and this voice we heard (Marshall 925); EEKOUSAMEN is first person plural, first aorist active indicative of AKOUOO (Han 423); this voice we ourselves [HEEMEIS we, emphatic] heard come [better, borne] out of heaven (Vincent 1.686); and this voice we on our part heard (Lenski 284); we heard this voice ourselves (Williams).
[ 84 ]EX OURANOU ENECHTHEISAN, out of heaven being borne (Marshall 925); ENECHTHEISAN is the first aorist passive participle, accusative singular feminine of PHEROO (Han 423); literally, having been borne (Vincent 1.686); was brought, came (Thayer 650); first aorist passive, of a divine proclamation, whether direct or indirect (Arndt 854, 855); borne from heaven (Williams); brought out of heaven (Lenski 284).
[ 85 ]SUN AUTOO ONTES EN TOO HAGIOO OREI, with him being in the holy mountain (Marshall 925); ONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of EIMI (Han 423); with Him on that sacred mountain (Williams); being together with him on the mount, the holy one (Lenski 285).
[ 86 ]KAI ECHOMEN TON PROPHEETIKON LOGON, and we have the prophetic word (Marshall 925); ECHOMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of ECHOO (Han 423); the word has the definite article (Vincent 1.687); so we have the message of the prophets (Williams); and we have the prophetic Word (Lenski 292).
[ 87 ]BEBAIOTERON, more firm (Marshall 925); more sure is used predicatively (Vincent 1.687); as more sure (Lenski 292); more certainly guaranteed (Williams).
[ 88 ]The two OT men (Moses and Elijah) departed earthly life without their bodies being found by anyone. Moses was buried by the Lord in the valley in the land of Moab, opposite Bethpeor "but no one knows his grave to this day" (De 32:6). Elijah "went up by a whirlwind into heaven" (2Ki 2:11).
[ 89 ]HOOS LUCHNOO PHAINONTI, as to a lamp shining (Marshall 925); a lamp (Vincent 1.68); the prophecies of the OT, inasmuch as they afforded at least some knowledge relative to the glorious return of Jesus from heaven down even to the time when by the Holy Spirit that same light, like the day and the day-star, shone upon the hearts of men, the light by which the prophets themselves had been enlightened and which was necessary to the full perception of the true meaning of their prophecies, 2 Peter 1:19 (Thayer 384); the believers are to pay attention tot he prophetic word HOS LUCHNOO PHAINONTI as to a lamp shining (Arndt 483); as to a lamp that is shining (Williams; Lenski 292).
[ 90 ]EN AUCHMEEROO TOPOO, in a murky place (Marshall 925); literally, a dry place . . . a subtle association of the idea of darkness with squalor, dryness and general neglect (Vincent 1.68); [from AUCHMOS drought produced by excessive heat], hence signifies dry, murky, dark, 2 Peter 1:19 [RV margin "squalid"] (Vine 259, 260); dry, dirty, dark, of a place (Arndt 124); in a dismal place (Williams; Lenski 292).
[ 91 ]HEOOS HOU HEMERA DIAUGASEE, until the day dawns (Marshall 925; Williams); DIAUGASEE is third person singular, first aorist active subjunctive of DIAUGAZOO (Han 423); signifies to shine through [DIA through, AUGEE brightness]; it describes the breaking of daylight upon the darkness of night, metaphorically in 2 Peter 1:19, of the shining of spiritual light into the heart (Vine 262); till day dawns (Lenski 292).
[ 92 ]KAI PHOOSPHOROS ANATEILEE EN TAIS KARDIAIS HUMOON, and [the] daystar rises in the hearts of you (Marshall 925); ANATEILEE is third person singular, first aorist active subjunctive of ANTELLOO (Han 423); of which our word phosphorus is a transcript. Literally, light-bearer, like Lucifer [from LUX light, PHEROO to bear (Vincent 1.688); English phosphorus, literally, light-bearing [PHOOS light, PHEROO to bear], is use of the morning star, as the light-bringer, 2 Peter 1:19, where it indicates the arising of the light of Christ as the Person fulfillment, in the hearts of believers of the prophetic Scriptures concerning His coming to receive them to Himself (Vine 264); bearing or giving light . . . the morning star, Venus . . . F. J. Dolger interprets the "light-bearer" to mean the sun (Arndt 872); light-bringing, giving light . . . the planet Venus, the morning-star, day-star (Thayer 663); and the morning star arises in your hearts (Williams); and a light-bearer arises in your hearts (Lenski 292).
[ 93 ]TOUTO PROOTON GINOOSKONTES, this firstly knowing (Marshall 925); GINOOSKONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of GINOOSKOO (Han 423); of the person know someone (Arndt 161); know, understand, perceive, have knowledge of . . . know one, his person, character, mind, plans (Thayer 117); because you recognize this truth above all else (Williams); realizing this, first of all (Lenski 296).
[ 94 ]HOTI PASA PROPHETEIA GRAPHEES, that every=no prophecy of scripture (Marshall 925); that no prophecy in Scripture (Williams); that no prophecy of Scripture (Lenski 296).
[ 95 ]GINETAI, becomes (Marshall 925); GINETAI is third person singular, present middle indicative of GINOMAI (Han 423); more literally, arises or originates (Vincent 1.688); originated (Williams); occurs (Lenski 296).
[ 96 ]IDIAS, of [its] own (Marshall 925); by one's own mind (Williams); from one's own (Lenski 296).
[ 97 ]EPILUSEOOS, solution (Marshall 925); literally, loosening, untying, as of hard knots of scripture (Vincent 1.688); [from EPILUOO to loose, solve, explain], denotes solution, explanation, literally, a release [EPI up, LUOO to loose], 2 Peter 1:20, "(of private) interpretation;" that is, the writers of Scripture did not put their own construction upon the "God-breathed" words they wrote (Vine 598); or origin (NKJV footnote); in 2 Peter 1:20, 21, it indicates that no prophecy comes from any private source, referring to the exposition of the will and purposes of God by the prophets themselves. Others refer to this as meaning that no prophecy is capable of private interpretation by the prophets themselves, that they cannot explain their own predictions (Zodhiates 630); interpretation (Lenski 296); is to be interpreted (Williams).
[ 98 ]Woods 161.
[ 99 ]In Greek mythology, there were nine sister goddesses called muses. They supposedly presided over song, poetry, the arts and sciences.
[ 100 ]Zondervan 685. In ancient Greece, an "oracle" was a priestess (or priest) through whom a god was supposed to speak.
[ 101 ]Those expecting the fulfillment of Moses' prediction referred to the coming Messiah as "the Prophet" or "that Prophet" (see Joh 1:21, 25; Ac 3:22-26; 7:37).
[ 102 ]OU GAR EENECHTHEE PROPHEETEIA POTE, for not was borne prophecy at any time (Marshall 925); literally, was born or brought (Vincent 1.688); was brought, came (Thayer 650); first aorist passive, of a divine proclamation, whether direct or indirect (Arndt 854, 855); for no prophecy has ever yet originated (Williams); for not was prophecy ever brought (Lenski 296).
[ 103 ]THELEEMATI ANTHROOPOU, by will of man (Marshall 925); in man's will (Williams); by man's will (Lenski 296).
[ 104 ]ALLA ELALEESAN APO THEOU ANTHROOPOI, but spoke from God men (Marshall 925); ELALEESAN is first person singular, first aorist active indicative of LALEOO (Han 424); HAGIOI ANTHROOPOI, the best texts omit holy, and read APO THEOU from God; render, men spake from God (Vincent 1.688); from God men made utterance (Lenski 296); but men spoke from God (Williams).
[ 105 ]Although no female wrote a book of the Bible, some women were prophets, that is, prophetesses (see Ex 15:20; Jg 4:4; 2Ki 22:14-20; 2Ch 34:22-28; Ne 6:4; Isa 8:3; Lu 2:36; Ac 2:17). The words of various women are given in Scripture. For example, the advice of King Lemuel's mother to her son is recorded in Proverbs 31. Inasmuch as the penman of the book of Hebrews is controversial, one cannot rule out the outside possibility that a woman wrote it. Priscilla has been suggested.
[ 106 ]HUPO PNEUMATOS HAGIOU PHEROMENOI, by Spirit [the] Holy being borne (Marshall 925); borne, carried, is rendered "being moved" in 2 Peter 1:21, signifying that they were "borne along," or impelled, by the Holy Spirit's power, not acting according to their own wills, or simply expressing their own thoughts, but expressing the mind of God in words provided and ministered by Him" (Vine 761); of the mind, moved inwardly, prompted (Thayer 650); figuratively, of the Spirit of God, by whom men are moved (Arndt 855); but as borne along by the Holy Spirit (Lenski 296); but were led by the Holy Spirit (Williams).
Copyright ©2001, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington, U.S.A.
This material may be copied for personal study only.
It may not be distributed or published in any form whatever
without the copyright owner's written permission.
This copyright notice must be included on all copies made.
The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method. To the Introduction
Published in The Old Paths Archive (http://www.oldpaths.com)
To the Index
To Second Peter Chapter Two